barcode scanner in asp.net c# INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY in Software

Creating Denso QR Bar Code in Software INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY
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22.5.2.1 Nonreinforced Dielectric Materials. Nonreinforced dielectric materials include resin-coated copper foils, unclad photoimageable dielectric materials, and non-photoimageable dielectric materials. 22.5.2.1.1 Resin-Coated Copper Foils. Resin-coated foils are the most common materials used for build-up multilayer microvia applications. Many product variations are available and fit well within the existing multilayer-manufacturing infrastructure. Epoxy-based coated foils are the most common and have performance properties similar to FR-4 but with no glass reinforcement. Peel strengths, thermal performance, and electrical properties are excellent. A variety of other resin systems are also being developed and starting to be used for coated foil build-up applications. Resin-coated foils come in two general types with either one or two resin layers. One-pass coated foils have a single B-stage layer designed to flow, fill, and provide thickness control at the same time. Two-pass coated foils have a C-stage resin layer adjacent to the foil and a B-stage layer for flow and fill. The fully cured C-stage layer acts as a stop during the lamination process, typically enabling better thickness control. Resincoated foils are available in a variety of thicknesses, yielding between 1.0 mil (25 micron) and 3.0 mil (76 micron) thick, finished dielectric layers. Copper foils most commonly used are 1/2 oz. (18 micron) and 3/8 oz. (13.34 micron), but there is substantial interest in thinner copper foils for improved laser efficiency and better fine-line circuitry definition. 22.5.2.1.2 Other Resins. Since build-up technology is still in its relative infancy but evolving rapidly, many different and diverse approaches are being investigated for the resins used and variations on the via-formation process. Low-Dk/Dj resins such as polyphenylene ether (PPE) are being used to address signal speed and integrity demands in resin-coated foil build-up structures.Another approach is to use additively plateable resin and use the copper as a sacrificial carrier, eliminating the need to laser through copper. An additively plateable resin has the characteristic of high surface adhesion to electroless copper or direct metallization.The sacrificial foil makes it compatible with normal multilayer lamination processes, saving the need for expensive coating machinery, while also protecting the thin dielectric from harm until it is laminated to the printed circuit. This also gives excellent surface topography for good peel strength. The properties of a resin-coated foil are given in Table 22.4. See IPC- 4104 specification sheets 12, 13, and 19 through 22 for more complete material performance information.
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TABLE 22.4 General Properties of Resin-Coated Copper (RCC) Units Dielectric constant at 1 MHz Dissipation factor at 1 MHz Electrical strength Insulation resistance Surface resistivity Volume resistivity
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Source: Allied-Signal
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Via foil 3.4 0.0205 1776 2.65 105 6.60 108 4.71 108 7.17 107
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Conditioning C-24/23/50 C-24/23/50 D-48/50 C-96/35/90 E-24/125 C-96/35/90 E-24/125
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V/mil M M M M -cm
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Laminate suppliers should be contacted when special needs arise, as the resulting composite will require understanding of fabrication and design issues. Resin-coated foils come in two general types:
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One-pass coated foils have a single B-stage layer designed to flow and fill and to provide thickness control, all at the same time. Two-pass coated foils have a C-stage resin layer against the foil and a B-stage layer for flow and fill. The fully cured C-stage layer acts as a stop during the lamination process, typically enabling better thickness control.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
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With the exception of the laser process, all the basic technology to produce SBU using resin-coated foil is the same as, and found in, most multilayer PWB production operations. Another alternative is to use additively platable resins. In this approach, the copper foil acts as a sacrificial carrier. The process is similar to that described earlier, but the first step after lamination is to etch off all the copper chemically. This eliminates the need to laser through copper and makes acquisition of registration targets simpler. The structure left behind by the copper also gives excellent surface topography to the resin for good peel strengths from the subsequent additive plating step.This approach allows for extremely fine feature definition and much greater laser efficiency. 22.5.2.1.3 Unclad Nonreinforced Photoimageable Dielectric Materials. Material chemistry options for this group include epoxies, epoxy blends, polynorborenes, and polyimides. They can be applied as liquid or dry film, negative or positive imaging, and can be solvent- or aqueousdevelopable. To improve the dielectric s adhesion to copper, most dielectric suppliers require a copper pretreatment with a black oxide or conversion coating (oxide replacement) prior to application of the dielectric. Most of these materials are either epoxy or epoxy- and novolac-based to provide high Tg and good plating, and most provide adhesion values for plated copper of at least 1.1 kg/cm at a 25 m copper thickness. Typically these dielectrics are metallized using conventional solvent swell and permanganate etching techniques.The liquid materials use only safe solvents (those not known to lead to harmful health effects with prolonged exposure. Typical microvias are seen in Chap. 23; Fig. 23.27. and Chap. 29; Figs. 29.5 and 29.12. A unique advantage for photoimageable materials is that the speed used to make small or large vias is the same. With the growing need to make embedded reactives (passives), large rectangular areas need to be opened up to place these devices. Currently, this is only economical with photoimaging. Most photoimageable materials are easy and fast to laser-drill because they are nonreinforced. See IPC-4104 specification sheets 1, 2, 7 through 10, and 16 for more complete material performance information. A partial list of available materials is shown in Table 22.5. Properties of photodielectrics can be seen in Tables 22.6 and 22.7.
TABLE 22.5 Partial List of six Photodielectrics available on the Market Ciba Dupont Enthone-OMI MacDermid Shipley Morton ProbelecTM 81/7081 liquid dielectric ViaLuxTM 81 photodielectric dry film Envision PDD-9015 photodefinable liquid dielectric MACu Via-C photodefinable liquid dielectric MultiPosit 9500 CC liquid dielectric DynaVia2000TM photoimageable dielectric dry film
TABLE 22.6 Comparison of Four Photoimageable Dielectrics for Electrical and Mechanical Properties (Courtesy of Holden Consulting) Factors Cost Processibility Performance: MIR Dk Tg CTE % Moisture Adhesion on lam.Cu Deposited Cu adhesion Overall rating Epoxy Excellent (+2) Excellent (+2) Good (+1) Fair (0) Fair-good (0) Good (+1) Good (+1) Excellent (+2) Good (+1) +10 Acrylate Excellent (+2) Excellent (+2) Fair (0) Fair (0) Poor ( 1) Poor ( 1) Good (+1) Good (+1) Good (+1) +5 Polyimide Poor ( 1) Poor ( 1) Fair (0) Good (+1) Excellent (+2) Excellent (+2) Poor ( 1) Poor ( 1) Poor ( 1) 0
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