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INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY
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TABLE 22.7 Partial List of Liquid and Film Dielectrics for HDI Available on the Market Product A Product Material Insulation resistance MIR Dk @ 1 Mhz 10 Mhz 1 Ghz Loss factor@1 Mhz 1GHz Breakdown voltage (between layers) E-migration Tg Peel Strength TCE (ppm/ C) Tensile modulus L-PID, Neg. Epoxy Product B L-PID, Neg. Epoxy 1 10 E+13 1 4 E+9 4.0 3.4 Product C L-PID, Neg. Polyimide Product D DF-PID, Neg. Epoxy 8 +13 1.5 +11 3.4 4.1 4.2 0.007 0.01
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22.5.2.1.4 Nonphotoimageable, Nonreinforced Dielectric Materials. This group can be laser-drilled, plasma-etched, and/or mechanically treated to form microvias. As stated earlier, many of the photoimageable dielectrics are laser-drillable. As with the photoimageable group, to improve the dielectric s adhesion to copper, most dielectric suppliers require a copper pretreatment with a black oxide or conversion coating (oxide replacement) process. See IPC-4104 specification sheets 6, 11, 17, and 18 for more complete material performance information. A partial list of materials is seen in Table 22.8.
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TABLE 22.8 Partial List of Commercially Available Nonphotoimageable, Nonreinforced Dielectric Materials and Their Suppliers Osada Ajinonomoto Tamura Taiyo MacDermid Enthone-OMI 3M B. F. Goodrich ABF dry film TBR-25A-3 thermoset ink HBI-200BC thermal cure ink MACuVia-L liquid dielectric Envision liquid dielectric Electronic bonding film Polynorborene liquid dielectric
22.5.2.2 Reinforced Dielectric Materials. Copper-clad dielectrics for HDI can be reinforced, as in FR-4, or unreinforced, as in coated copper foil. The dielectrics can be epoxy, as in FR-4, or polyimide, cyanate ester, bismalene-triazine (BT), PPE, or PTFE. Reinforcements are typically glass cloth, but there are a variety of glass as well as aramid paper and exotic fibers such as quartz or carbon fiber. 22.5.2.3 Laser-Drillable, Woven-Glass Laminate. A new family of prepregs for HDI consists of uniform-glass prepregs such as 1086 and 1087 glass. This glass is a thinner fabric than the typical 1080 glass cloth; it has more glass plies but they are spread uniformly across
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TABLE 22.9 Comparison of Conventional 1080, 1080 LD, and the New 1086 LD Prepregs (Courtesy of NanYa Plastics) Fabric type Base weight (g/cm2) Resin content Warp Fill (W + F) 60 48 60 48 60 61
Warp mm
Width mil 7.48 11.02 11.3
Fill mm 0.264 6.44 0.395
Width mil 10.39 17.3 155.7
Thickness mm 0.057 0.045 0.045 mil 2.24 1.77 1.77
1080 1080 LD 1086 LD
48 48 55
62 62 62
0.19 0.280 0.288
the fabric. Table 22.9 describes the differences between the conventional 1080 glass cloth and the 1080 LD (laser-drillable) and the new 1086 LD prepreg. Figure 22.11 shows these two glass prepregs. Table 22.10 compares the performance of RCC, conventional 1080 prepreg (PP), and the new 1086 LD prepreg, whereas Fig. 22.12 shows laser-drilled microvias in the two different prepregs.
FIGURE 22.11 Photos of conventional 1080 prepreg and the new laser-drillable 1086 LD uniform-glass prepreg. (Courtesy of NanYa Plastics.)
22.5.2.4 Aramid-Reinforced, Non-Woven, Non-Glass Laminate. In 1965, scientists at DuPont discovered a method for producing an almost perfect polymer chain extension using the polymer poly-p-benzamide. The key structural feature of this molecule is the paraorientation on the benzene ring, which allows it to form rod-like structures with a simple repeating molecular backbone. The term aramid now refers generically to organic fibers in the aromatic polyimide family. Kevlar was the first para-aramid fiber to become familiar, due to its use in bullet-resistant vests and as a lightweight, high-strength structural reinforcement. Aramidreinforced prepregs and laminates have proven their functionality for a number of years in high-reliability applications and more recently in consumer electronics. The low CTE of aramid non-woven reinforced prepreg and laminate provides a closer match to the CTE of the silicon chip. Depending on the type of resin and the resin and copper
INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 22.10 Comparison of the Performance of RCC, Conventional Prepregs, and the New Laser-Drillable 1086 LD Glass Prepreg (Courtesy of NanYa Plastics) Build-up layer Dimension stability Thickness control Surface smooth Rigidity Handling Drill ability RCC Poor Poor Good Poor Good Excellent Convention P/P Good Good Good Good Good Poor 1086 LDP Better Good Better Good Good Good
FIGURE 22.12 Photos of cross sections of laser-drilled vias in conventional prepregs and the new, uniform, laser-drillable 1086 LD prepregs. (Courtesy of NanYa Plastics.)
content of the laminate and the prepreg, the CTE of the PWB can be tailored to between 10 and 16 ppm/ C (Fig. 22.13). This allows the designer the option of finding a best fit of the CTE of the PWB to the CTE of the components. Reliability can be designed in by PWB designers, as they know which component packages are used, what the CTE requirements of these packages are, and what the life-expectancy requirements of the electronic equipment are. The ability to tailor in-plane CTE has made non-woven aramid-reinforced PWBs one of the most favorable material options for avionics, satellites, and telecom applications where long life expectancy and high reliability are needed. In mobile phone applications, where chip scale packages (CSPs) are commonly employed, low-CTE non-woven aramid reinforcement extends solder joint life as much as three times over FR-4 and resin-coated foil (RCF). After more than 1,000 thermal cycles ( 40 to +125 C), non-woven aramid-reinforced epoxy resin does not crack, as is common with nonreinforced dielectrics. Aramid-reinforced laminate and prepreg allow fast microvia hole formation and at the same time maintain the performance characteristic of a smooth surface for fine-line conductor imaging. The ablation speed of non-woven (aramid) laminates and prepregs is close to that achieved when using nonreinforced materials such as resin-coated foil, dry film, or liquid dielectrics. Since aramid laminates are very stable, they allow the fabrication of doublesided, very thin, etched innerlayers, which are then pressed to a multilayer package in a single
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