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BIBLIOGRAPHY-ADDITIONAL READING
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1. Coors, G., Anderson, P., and Seward, L., A Statistical Approach to Wiring Requirements, Proceedings of the IEPS, 1990, pp. 774 783. 2. Sutherland, I. E., and Oestreicher, D., How Big Should a Printed-Circuit Board Be IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-22, No.5, May 1973, pp. 5323 5542.
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ADVANCED HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGIES
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23.1 INTRODUCTION
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Since the introduction of HDI in the mid-1980s (HP-Finstrate, Siemens s MicroWiring, and IBM s Surface Laminar Circuit [SLC] technology; see Figs. 22.1, 22.2, and 22.3), many variations of making high-density interconnect (HDI) wiring boards have been developed and implemented for mass production. However, if one technology is to be judged in terms of volume produced and picked as a winner, laser-drilling technology is the one. Other methods are still used by a number of printed wiring board (PWB) manufacturers, but on a much smaller scale. The purpose of this chapter is to examine a variety of HDI fabrication processes as seen in Fig. 23.1. However, a greater emphasis will be placed on the laser-drilling process (hereinafter laservia) since it is the most popular process today and it seems its popularity will grow in the future. It must be understood that interconnect via hole (IVH) formation is just one element of fabricating HDI wiring boards. The other two important factors are the various dielectric materials and the methods of metallization. Fabrication of HDI wiring boards with microvia holes involves many new processes not common to conventional board fabrication. Therefore, additional emphasis will be placed upon these new fabrication processes that are common to other microvia technologies.
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23.2 DEFINITIONS OF HDI PROCESS FACTORS
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The 21 different HDI processes shown in Fig. 23.1 have three basic fabrication factors in their process makeup:
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Dielectric materials IVH formation Methods of metallization
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FIGURE 23.1 The HDI technologies in use today are made up of three factors: the dielectric materials, the methods of IVH formation, and the method of metallization of those z-axis via connections. In recent years up until now, 21 different HDI processes have been used.
Dielectric Materials Eight different general dielectric materials have been used in the current or past HDI processes. IPC slash sheets such as IPC-4101B and IPC-4104 cover many of these, but many are not yet specified by IPC standards. The materials are:
Photosensitive liquid dielectrics Photosensitive dry-film dielectrics Polyimide flexible film Thermally cured dry films Thermally cured liquid dielectrics Resin-coated copper (RCC) foil Conventional FR-4 cores and prepregs Thermoplastics
ADVANCED HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGIES
Interconnect Via Hole Formation Seven different methods of forming the IVHs have been used in current or past HDI processes. Laser drilling is the most prominent, but the other six come into use also. The methods are:
Photo processes to define vias in photodielectrics Various laser-drilling methods, including UV-Yag, UV-Eximer, and CO2 Mechanical drilling Plasma drilling Screen printing of via pastes Photo and etch of solid vias Toolfoil
Method of Metallization Four different methods of metallizing the IVHs have been used in the current or past HDI processes. The methods are:
Fully additive electroless copper Conventional electroless and electroplating copper Conductive pastes Fabricating solid metal vias
HDI FABRICATION PROCESSES
The three basic and original HDI processes are laser drilling laminate (Finstrate) and flexible materials (microwiring), photodielectrics with SLC and plasma-etching polyimide (Dycostrate). These and the other 18 HDI processes have been integrated into standard printed circuit manufacturing flows. There is no standard way to organize these processes, but the method of IVH formulation is the most unique characteristic of each process and will be used for this purpose.
Photo-Via Technologies 1,2 23.1.1 IBSS-AAP10 System. The Interpenetrating Polymer Network Build-Up Structure System (IBSS) is a new photodielectric. This photo-imageable dielectric (PID) is a proprietary photodielectric developed by Ibiden of Japan. It complements Ibiden s older epoxy type of photo-redistribution layer technology, IP-10. 23.3.1.1.1 Structure. IBSS is specifically formulated for integrated circuit and flip-chip packages and has a high Tg and flexibility. The bismalene-triazine(BT) core also provides hightemperature resistance. A typical IBSS structure and its features are illustrated in Fig. 23.2. 23.3.1.1.2 Manufacturing Process. IBSS is a liquid system applied by roller coater to a rigid core, typically BT. The coating is cured and photodeveloping creates the vias. The IBSS requires an aggressive swell-and-etch because of the higher-temperature nature of the photo-dielectric (PD). The metallization is fully additive copper, also proprietary to Ibiden.
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