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FIGURE 23.38 Example of a ToolFoil for imprinting. (Courtesy of Dimensional Circuits.)
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FIGURE 23.39 The manufacturing process for the ToolFoil and using the tool to make imprinted circuits.
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FIGURE 23.40 Methods of metallization using electroless plating, plugging, and etching. (Courtesy of Dimensional Circuits.)
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HDI and microvias provide a big boost in density due to miniaturization. These technologies will continue to evolve and become smaller, following integrated circuit cell geometries. So the next revolution will be in optical wiring. Currently, optical networking ties together continents and cities, providing the backbone of modern worldwide networking. The fiercely competitive market is what technology will provide the last mile on connectivity Optical wiring is competing for that market.
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Printed Optical Waveguides Although electrical signals can be multiplexed on a single 100 micron wire or trace, many individual laser wavelengths can each carry many multiplexed signals on a single 100 micron waveguide. This results in a 10,000 increase in information handling while not being influenced by magnetic and electrical fields such as electronic signals. These optical fibers can now be mass produced on a printed circuits as polymer optical waveguides, as shown in Fig. 23.41. Much like when the industry transitioned from single-point soldering by individual wires to printed circuits, single-point fiber-optical cabling can now have low-cost printed waveguides. 23.4.1.1 Structures. The optical waveguide structures are shown in Fig. 23.42. The transmitter package provides the multiplexed laser signal sources, through vertical cavity surface
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Core Prepreg Optical waveguides Prepreg Ground layer Microstrip lines SIEMENS AG IC C-LAB, 1999 Core Prepreg Core
FIGURE 23.41 Structure of a printed optical waveguide. (Courtesy of Siemens C-Lab.)
emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays into mirrors at the optical polymer waveguide level. At the receiver package, mirrors direct the laser signal up into photodiode arrays. 23.4.1.2 Components. Figure 23.43 shows what the transmitter and receiver BGA packages will look like, whereas Fig. 23.44 shows what the micro-mirrors,VCSEL, and photo-receptor sensors may look like.
FIGURE 23.42 NTT waveguide-on-board concept with OptoBump packages. (Courtesy of NTT-Lab.)
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FIGURE 23.43 NTT chip-to-chip optical interconnection, Tx and Rx. (Courtesy of NTT-Lab.)
23.4.1.3 Optical Waveguide Materials. The optical materials being considered for integrated waveguides are currently polymers. Polymers have a number of advantages:
Stability Such materials offer high thermal stability and long-term photostability. Bellcore Telecordia compliance (i.e., 1209, 1221) tested for less than 600 hr. at 85 C/85 relative humidity (RH), solder temperature >230 C, and degradation temperature >350 C. Well established A huge body of data has been gathered over the last 100 years on polymers including all the popular photoresists. Useful Polymers have unique properties (such as bend radius, modulators, and index tuning) that you cannot get anywhere else. These properties include unique processing options (photolithographic, reactive ion etching [RIE], direct laser writing, molding, and printing). They also have a number of disadvantages:
Unstable Many have low thermal stability (POF below 80 C) with photodegration (laser dyes < days) and are sensitive to delamination, moisture, and chemicals. Unknown New materials require new processes, equipment, and experience. Useless Some polymers have losses of POF of 20 dB/km, whereas optical glass is <0.1 dB/km. The packaging cost of polymers is 80 percent of the cost in devices.
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Optical transmitter (e.g., VCSEL) or optical receiver (photo diode) Electrical contacts Carrier Cladding Core Cladding Electrical layer
Electrical layer Optical layer
Mirror Optical transmitter (e.g., VCSEL) or optical receiver (photo diode) Source: Siemens c-lab Electrical contacts Carrier Electrical layer Cladding Optical layer Core Cladding Electrical layer
FIGURE 23.44 Various components and mounting schemes for the VCSEL, mirrors, and photo-receptors. (Courtesy of Siemens C-Lab.)
Candidate materials are acrylates, halogenated acrylates, cyclobutenes, polyimides, and polysiloxane. Table 23.3 lists many of the most popular materials. The optical losses of the polymers (dB/cm) are in the lower wavelengths near 840 nm. 23.4.1.4 Manufacturing Process. The manufacturing process for polymer optical waveguides is much like using a liquid photoresist. Roller coating or meniscus coating of the liquid polymer is all that is required to apply the optical polymer on a standard multilayer innerlayer. After drying, the optical polymer is exposed through standard photo masks and developed. After a final curing, they are laminated into standard multilayers with prepregs. Figure 23.45 shows the lay-up of the TRUEMODE optical polymer from Terahertz Corporation.
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