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Conformal Mask Processing A mask of holes made by drilling, etching, or laser-ablating the top layer of copper. CO2 is used for dielectric removal and a high ablation rate.
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Direct Dielectric Drilling No copper layer is required. The mask in the laser beam defines the via diameter.
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Via Formation with CO2 Only The copper layer is etched and oxidized. CO2 is used for copper and dielectric.
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FIGURE 25.3 CO2 process overview.
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Creating Board Elements with Lasers Vias are created by having the laser beam make concentric circles or spiraled cuts. Laser pulse trains can be used to create vias or lines. Hole desmear can also be done by laser.
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UV Lasers 25.3.6.1
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Yitrium-Aluminum-Garnet (YAG).
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The output pulse is ~120 nanoseconds. YAG was first used for laser PCB drilling. It provides high pulse energy. Yitrium-Vanadate (YV04).
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YVO4 s output pulse is ~20 nanoseconds. Its repetition rate is ~100 KHz. Currently YVO4 is most commonly used for PCB drilling.
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PRECISION INTERCONNECT DRILLING
HYBRID LASER VIA FORMATION UV AND CO2 CO2 U Chemical, Plasma or Laser
Plat
Raw Panel
FIGURE 25.4 Hybrid laser via formation using UV and CO2 lasers.
Microvia
25.3.6.3 Yitrium-Lithium-Fluoride (YFL).
The output pulse is ~50 nanoseconds. YFL is more efficient, providing five times the absorption coefficient of YAG at the pump wavelength.
Hybrid Lasers (UV and CO2) Figure 25.4 shows a flow of the use of hybrid lasers for via formation. This hybrid is the combined use of CO2 and UV laser technology.
FACTORS AFFECTING HIGH-DENSITY DRILLING
The following are factors to be considered regarding mechanical drilling.
Positioning/Hole Location The positioning system for conventional drilling machines consists of x-, y-, and z-axes. The xand y-axes refer to the position of the circuit board under the drill spindle, and the z-axis to the plunging and retracting motions that allow the drill spindle to feed the drill bit into the substrate material. Machine accuracy is defined by the machine s ability to position the table under the spindles to the desired programmed x and y values. All process variables, such as tool design, stack height, feeds and speeds, and tooling methods, must be eliminated to evaluate machine accuracy. The stability of the machine is critical when microdrilling dense drill patterns. When the drilling system is designed, stability is one of the most important factors taken into consideration.The foundation or base of the machine is usually constructed of granite or similar material. Granite is typically used because of its mass and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to temperature fluctuation.The upper structure of the machine is designed with a high natural frequency, which allows the structure to stabilize quickly, reducing the time the machine must pause before making a rapid movement to the next hole location. Vibration caused by forces such as punch presses, drilling machines operating in close proximity, or any other type of equipment capable of causing severe vibration can have a
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detrimental effect on HDI drilling, such as drill bit breakage and hole mislocation. Each drilling machine should be isolated from these forces as thoroughly as possible.The ideal solution is to have each drill machine placed on its own isolated pad made of reinforced concrete. This setup serves to isolate the drill machine from a large percentage of the vibration transmitted through the shop floor.
Drill Room Temperature and Relative Humidity All materials have coefficients that, because of the precision required, are critically important to the operation of drilling machines. Temperature has a profound impact on the accuracy of the drilling machines. With changes in ambient temperature, the materials used to build the machines may expand or contract, changing the position of the drilled hole in the printed circuit board. Keeping a consistent room temperature is essential for maintaining accurate positioning of the machine. A stable temperature throughout the PCB process assists in decreasing the amount of potential growth and contraction of the substrate materials.The drill room should be kept at a constant temperature and humidity, typically 72 2 F (22 1.1 C) and 45 to 60 percent humidity.
Vacuum Sufficient vacuum flow is imperative when drilling high-aspect-ratio holes in tightly drilled grids. The vacuum system serves two main purposes:
To extract debris from the drilling surface To keep the tool cool by removing the debris, thus decreasing the amount of friction in the hole wall
Insufficient vacuum flow leads to hole wall quality problems such as gouging, nail heading, and excessive smearing. Table 25.1 provides a hole-quality troubleshooting matrix that addresses these problems. The minimum industry standard for vacuum strength is approximately 20 in. of water measured at the pressure foot. There are numerous applications such as high-aspect-ratio drilling that require an increased amount of vacuum pressure to remove debris sufficiently, and the equipment manufacturer can provide specific guidelines for special situations. Increasing the z-stroke distance between the pressure foot insert and the top of the drilled stack also assists in cooling the drill bit.
Drill Bit Drill bits (called tools) are critical in the drilling process. A wide variety of tools are available and your tool vendor can be very helpful with selecting feeds and speeds. Be sure to try several vendors to find the best tools for your particular process.
Drill Bit Condition The condition of the used drill bit is a key indicator of the control and capability of the drilling process and provides an indication of the condition of the drilled hole wall. A wealth of process information can be extracted from the used drill bit. Examining drills before the
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