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Configuration for projection imaging equipment: (a) scanning, (b) stitching, and (c) magnified.
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26.6.4.2 Laser Direct Imaging. The LDI method of exposure provides the ultimate in flexibility for customized pattern compensation factors and for engineering changes to the product design since it does not require a phototool. Systems introduced in the 1980s used an Ar+ laser with visible optics, requiring specialized photoresists that were sensitive to visible light. Improved Ar+ systems relied on the UV wavelengths, making it compatible with conventional photoresists. However, high-speed photoresists were needed to achieve the productivity for high-volume production. Concerns about the lifetime (3,000 to 5,000 hours) and power consumption (60 to 80 kW) of gas lasers led to development of solid-state laser systems at various wavelengths.28,29,30 The initial solid-state laser systems used 355 nm with a polygon mirror to scan the panel. Recently developed LDI systems have used digital mirror devices (DMD) instead of polygon mirrors and image at a wavelength of 405 nm. Filters are used to block 355 nm light, extending the lifetime of the DMD device. Due to the small size of the individual mirrors, about 1.5 microns, DMD technology provides better resolution than an 8,000 dpi polygon mirror system. However, the area coverage is smaller and several DMDs working in parallel are needed to expose a PWB panel. Systems have also been introduced that use no photoresist at all, laser ablating either tin for use as an etch resist or physical vapor deposition (PVD) copper on polyimide for use as a plating base.31,32 In addition to varying in laser type and wavelength, specific equipment designs differ in optics, either single- or multiple-beam operation; platen design; single- or double-side exposure; pixel shape; and spot size and resolution.
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Multiple-beam operation increases exposure productivity, a key requirement for economic feasibility in large-volume manufacturing. Target production rates for the various systems ranged from 60 to 180 panels per hour (18 in. 24 in. with 50 mm features). However, installed LDI systems have been used primarily for prototype and small-lot, quick-turn production of high-density boards. For these applications, savings are achieved due to artwork elimination and reduced setup time. For volume production of medium- to high-technology boards, it is possible to achieve an economic return through yield savings and the ability to produce designs that had not been technically or economically possible with conventional imaging.33 LDI technology makes it possible to scale the electronic data and and compensate for dimensional changes in sequential build-up (SBU) structures. Although the UV systems can expose conventional photoresist, use of high-speed photoresist is needed to maximize tool throughput. Most LDI systems use a flatbed platen design and can image both innerlayers and outerlayers. Systems with an external drum architecture, similar in design to laser photo plotters, are limited to innerlayers because the panel must have sufficient flexibility to conform to the drum (Fig. 26.18).The pixel shape can be either square or gaussian. Square pixels are made up
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FIGURE 26.18 Schematics of laser direct imaging equipment: (a) flatbed platen; (b) external drum.
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FIGURE 26.19 Computer simulation of aerial image for a 25 mm feature: (a) four 12.5 mm laser spots on 6.25 mm pixel spacing; (b) four 6.25 mm laser spots on 6.25 mm pixel spacing.
of many point sources of light and can theoretically achieve perfect stitching. However, in real systems there is intensity variation due to mechanical vibration and edge rounding. Gaussian pixels use a single-point source and may have less intensity variation. Due to the diffractionlimited nature of light, greater depth of focus can be achieved.34 Figure 26.19 illustrates that
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FIGURE 26.20 Final image dimension as governed by spot size and addressability of a laser plotter or laser direct exposure tool.
imaging with a smaller laser spot size gives steeper aerial image sidewalls, increasing process latitude.35 In addition to spot size, addressability of the beam is important in determining the system resolution, as shown in Fig. 26.20. In selecting an LDI system, you must consider both the capital cost and operating cost. However, the critical factor is that the equipment combined with the photoresist material is capable of achieving both the resolution needed for the product mix and the productivity needed for the production volume. Photoresists for LDI are available that are compatible with the various metallization processes.36
Develop In this process step, the solubility difference between the exposed and unexposed areas of the photoresist creates a relief image of the master pattern. The panel is immersed in an appropriate solvent, and the process conditions are adjusted to control the clearing time for dissolving the unexposed areas for negative photoresists or exposed areas for positive ones.Total dwell time is set to approximately double the time to clear, commonly called a 50 percent breakpoint. Solution concentration, temperature, and agitation are key variables. The resulting photoresist images should be distinct, with vertical sidewalls. Failure to achieve this indicates that one of the previous steps requires adjustment. For images larger than the phototool dimension, the cause is either incomplete development, overexposure, or poor contact during exposure. For images that are smaller than expected, either the exposure dose is too low or development is too aggressive. Distorted images can be caused by problems with preclean, application, or exposure. The common equipment for developing is spray conveyorized, either horizontally or vertically. Additives are used in the developer solution to prevent foaming. The solution is filtered to remove resist particles and either replenished with fresh solution to maintain a consistent dissolved resist content and solution concentration or operated continuously for a certain amount of product and then replaced.Waste-developer solution is treated (aqueous and semiaqueous) or distilled and reused (solvent). Rinsing is important in stopping the dissolution and, for aqueous photoresists, water with a high-mineral content often improves the resist image and the conductor yield. Tank systems can also be used with photoresists that have a wide-process latitude. Ultrasonic agitation is often used to aid in the dissolution.
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