MULTILAYER MATERIALS AND PROCESSING in Software

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MULTILAYER MATERIALS AND PROCESSING
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Tg measurement by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) determines the Tg by the change in thermal expansion as the polymer goes from glass state to rubbery state due to a change in free molecular volume. A change in the slope of the z-axis expansion rate indicates the glass transition.Typically, the data sheet will report the Tg and the CTE (discussed in more detail later in the chapter) in the z-axis above and below the Tg ( % CTE < Tg and a % CTE > Tg ), where the slope (viewed when graphed with temperature on the x-axis and percentage expansion on the yaxis) is much steeper above the glass transition. Alternately or additionally, the data sheet may report the percent thermal expansion (PTE), which is the total change in thickness over a temperature range of interest for instance, from a temperature below Tg to the anticipated soldering temperature (e.g., 245 C, 260 C). IPC-4101B slash sheets 99, 101, 121, 124, 126, and 129 have a new requirement for reporting z-axis CTE in %TE from 50 to 260 C. Both the slope above Tg and the temperature at Tg are important to understanding the total expansion of the material.When the data sheet lists PTE, and the top temperature is sufficient to your application, then it is far easier to compare competing materials to each other and their expansion response to the assembly temperature. For Test Method TM-2.4.24 (TMA), the sample is 0.25 0.25 in. 0.20 in. minimum; for increased accuracy, the sample should be between 0.030 and 0.060 in. The sample has no internal or external copper, with only the resin, fillers (if applicable), and reinforcing system affecting the result. Test Method 2.4.24.5 (TMA) is used to determine the CTE ppm/ C values for the x- and y-axis, using Method B, a thin specimen ( 0.020 in.); it can also provide the Tg and PTE. TM 2.4.24.5,(TMA) Method A, will provide z-axis expansion (but not x- and y-axis expansion), Tg, and PTE for thicker specimens ( 0.020 in.). Since TMA measures Tg as a function of the expansion of the material, and will also provide the z-axis CTE, it is the method fabricators use most commonly for Tg determination to infer a materials thermal stability during assembly. For dielectric materials used for the formation of HDI layers (thinner layers, = 0.006 in., adjacent to or forming the outerlayer, and having microvias to provide interconnection with the balance of the construction), IPC-4104 states that the preferred method for determining Tg and CTE above and below Tg is Test Method 2.4.24.5. Tg measurement by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) determines the elastic modulus (or storage modulus) as a function of temperature, thereby identifying the glass transition region in plastics. The Tg is accompanied by a rapid reduction of the flexural strength. DMA typically gives Tg values 10 to 15 C higher than DSC. DMA has not traditionally been used by the board fabrication industry; however, some evidence suggests that this technique might be a better differentiator for and indicator of a materials inherent thermal stability in the LFA reflow environment since it combines temperature with torsional oscillation. Additionally, this test has the advantage of being very sensitive and accurate with thin film materials. 27.2.2.2.2 Time to Delamination (Txxx). Time to delamination is a test to determine the elapsed time at an elevated temperature when a sudden and irreversible expansion, indicative of a delamination, occurs. This is at a temperature higher than the Tg of the material. Historically this test called for an isothermal temperature of 260 C (hence the abbreviated common test name, T260) until expansion due to delamination is detected by TMA. See Fig. 27.1 for an example of a TMA plot. For common materials, the T260 varies from a few minutes to hours. With the advent of LFA, higher temperatures 288 C and 300 C are now used to evaluate and differentiate materials. The test is the same as T260 with the exception of the isothermal temperature. IPC-4101 RoHS-compliant laminates pass T260 at 30 min. minimum,T288 at 15 min. minimum, and T300 at 2 min. minimum, when tested by TM 2.4.24.1. 27.2.2.2.3 Thermal Decomposition Temperature (Td ). The thermal decomposition of a laminate is a test to determine the temperature at which a set weight loss percentage occurs. This is indicative of an irreversible degradation of the chemical bonds within the system coincident with the alteration of the laminate s physical properties, or indicative of outgassing of volatile products. The mass of the sample is weighed; the sample is then placed in the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The temperature at which there is a 2 percent weight decrease is
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