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Wafer-scale package. (Courtesy of Flipchip Technologies.)
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Direct Chip Attach (DCA) The next step down from area array packages is DCA. The methods of attaching a semiconductor die directly to an interconnect board (PCB, multilayer ceramic, etc.) are:
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Die bond/wire-bond TAB Flip-chip bonding
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An exhaustive discussion of wire-bond, TAB, and controlled-collapse chip connection (C4) or solder-bumped flip-chip-to-board interconnect technology can be found in Chap. 6 of Ref. 7. Figure 3.15 illustrates these chip interconnect methodologies, which will be discussed in the following text. 3.2.5.1 Die Bonding to Printed Circuit. The preferred method of die bonding and wirebonding is epoxy die bonding to the interconnect (i.e., PCB or multilayer ceramic) and gold ball-wedge wire-bonding. One of the advantages of gold ball-wedge wire-bonding is that a wedge bond can be performed on an arc around the ball bond. This is not true for wedgewedge wire-bonding. Wire bonds can be made with wire diameters as small as 0.8 mil. Thermosonic ball-wedge bonding of a gold wire, shown in Fig. 3.15(e), is performed in the following manner: 1. A gold wire protrudes through a capillary. 2. A ball is formed over the end of the wire by capacitance discharge or by passing a hydrogen torch over the end of the gold wire.
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SEMICONDUC TOR PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY
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FIGURE 3.15 DCA interconnect methodologies: (a) die bond/wire-bond module; (b) TAB module; (c) flip TAB module; (d) flip-chip module; (e) thermosonic gold wirebonding; (f) TAB bonding; (g) flip-chip bonding.
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3. Bonding of the ball is accomplished by simultaneously applying a vertical load to the ball bottomed out on the die bond pad while ultrasonically exciting the capillary (the die and substrate are usually heated to a nominal temperature). 4. The capillary is moved up and over to the substrate or lead bond pad, creating a loop, and, under load and ultrasonic excitation, a bond is made. 5. The wire is clamped relative to the capillary and the capillary moves up, breaking the wire at the bond. Die bond and wire-bond attach suffer from the problem that this method of chip attach is difficult to repair, particularly if the chip is encapsulated.
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3.2.5.2 Tape-Automated Bonding (TAB). TAB, shown in Fig. 3.15(f), is more expensive than wire bonding and may require a substantial fan-out from the die to make the outer lead bond. TAB is a process in which chemically etched, prefabricated copper fingers, in the form of a continuously etched tape consisting of repetitive sites, are simultaneously bonded using temperature and pressure to gold or gold-tin eutectic bumps that are fabricated on the I/Os of the die. The outer leads of the TAB-bonded die are excised and simultaneously bonded to tinned pads on the interconnect, using temperature and pressure. 3.2.5.3 Solder-Bumped Dies. The use of solder-bumped dies for packaging electronic systems was pioneered by IBM and was called controlled-collapse chip connection (C4) by IBM. The solder bump composition of the C4 die is approximately 95Pb/5Sn.The C4 dies in the IBM application were attached to multilayer ceramic substrates by reflow soldering, using a flux that required cleaning after reflow. The initial IBM application of C4 technology was for highend computer packaging. Flip-chip attach shown in Fig. 3.15(g), where the die I/Os are solder bumped (usually with 95Pb/5Sn or eutectic Pb/Sn solder) and the chip reflow is attached to its interconnect, has now emerged as a viable packageless technology for consumer commercial products. For the DCA technology, the PCB flip-chip lands are usually solder-finished with a eutectic Pb/Sn solder. A no-clean flux is used for DCA soldering. Once the chip has been solder-attached, it is underencapsulated to provide moisture protection and to enhance the thermal cycling performance of the assembled die. References 8 to 10 discuss some of the emerging developments for direct attach of solder-bumped die to PCBs for commercial product applications. Figure 3.16 shows the DCA application discussed in Ref. 10. In this application, the CBGA packaged microprocessor was solder-bumped and direct chip attached to illustrate the potential savings in PCB real estate.
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FIGURE 3.16 DCA applications. The microprocessor on the left is in BGA, while the microprocessor on the right is attached by solder bumps to show potential area savings.
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