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The construction of the rigid multilayer ML-PWB can take on many variations. To help categorize the various constructions, the IPC has developed industry PWB design specifications, defining them by class and type. Grouping the ML-PWB into categories facilitates the ability of designers and fabricators to communicate using a common format.
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IPC Classifications IPC classifications specify generic PBC design and rigid organic printed board structure. 27.3.1.1 IPC-2221: Generic Standard on Printed Board Design. There are many MLPWB structures. This section discusses the methods and materials for the basic and several of the advanced structures. The IPC has two comprehensive standards for the design of rigid printed circuits, IPC-2222 and IPC-2226. The classification system within these standards for the ML-PWB by structure is shown. The distinction between the two is the focus on microvias in the later standard. 27.3.1.2 IPC-2222: Rigid Organic Printed Board Structure Design. This standard covers products with conventional feature sizes:
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Type 3 This is a multilayer board without blind or buried vias (see Fig. 27.4) Type 4 This is a multilayer board with blind and/or buried vias (see Fig. 27.5)
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FIGURE 27.4 Type 3 (eight-layer ML-PWB) multilayer board without blind or buried vias.
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FIGURE 27.5 Type 4 (eight-layer-B/V MLPWB) multilayer board with buried vias.
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FIGURE 27.6 Type I (six-layer HDI MLPWB) high-density multilayer board with blind vias from top and bottom layers and through vias connecting the outerlayers.
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FIGURE 27.7 Type II (six-layer HDI MLPWB) high-density multilayer board with vias as well as buried vias in the core and through-vias connecting the outerlayers.
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FIGURE 27.8 Type III (eight-layer HDI MLPWB) high-density multilayer board with blind vias as well as buried vias in the core and through vias connecting the outerlayers.
27.3.1.3 IPC-2226: Design Standard for High-Density Interconnect (HDI) Printed Boards. This covers products with high-density feature sizes:
Type I 1[C]0 or 1[C]1 has through vias connecting the outerlayers (see Fig. 27.6). Type II 1[C]0 or 1[C]1 has buried vias in the core and may have through vias connecting the outerlayers (see Fig. 27.7). Type III >2[C]>0 may have buried vias in the core and may have through vias connecting the outerlayers (see Fig. 27.8).
27.3.2 Basic Type 3 ML-PWB Stack-Ups The type 3 construction can be said to be the most basic of PWB multilayer technologies. An ML-PWB is fabricated by the bonding (laminating) of copper-clad details consisting of imaged and etched laminates (typically double-sided). The bonding medium, known as prepreg, is a Bstaged (partially cured) reinforced resin. The imaged details consist of C-staged (fully cured) laminate. These material components are arranged by layering according to the design documentation. This layering method in fabrication, known as the stack-up, follows the layer numbering order of the design. The stack-up formation method is often loosely defined in the design documentation; therefore, a good understanding of the lamination options is necessary. The lamination options described in this discussion refer to methods used to form the outerlayers and to form layer pairs. The material resin system should be defined on the design documentation. Refer to IPC-2221/2222 for minimum suggested design documentation requirements.
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The basic ML-PWB stack-up can be constructed with two options to produce the outerlayers and to form layer pairs. A third option that employs single-sided capped clads is rarely used and is not discussed. Often, in the case of designs having an odd number of layers, a combination of these methods is employed. The following three-layer stack-up methods are discussed:
Foil outerlayer construction (foil outer) In this stack-up, the outerlayers are formed by using a sheet of copper foil per side. Clad outerlayer construction (clad outer) A clad detail provides the copper for the outerlayer. Odd-layer construction This stack-up method balances a construction consisting of an odd number of layers.
27.3.2.1 Foil Outer Stack-Up. A board produced with copper foil outers is fabricated from one or more patterned innerlayer details and two copper sheets. The copper sheets form the outerlayers of the fabricated ML-PWB. This stack-up is the least expensive way to fabricate an ML-PWB and is by far the most popular design option. Figure 27.9 shows a typical stack-up for a foil outer board consisting of eight layers. The stack-up shown contains three imaged clad details bonded with two sheets of prepreg at each opening and having two sheets of copper foil on the outside. When possible, the higher resin content prepreg ply should face the signal layer side. This is especially important when the signal is a heavyweight copper (2 oz. or more). The copper layers, numbered from L1 to L8, begin with the top foil layer (typically called the primary side). In the design FIGURE 27.9 Foil outer stack-up (eightpictured, the layers L2, L4, L5, and L7 represent signal layers. layer ML-PWB), a typical stack-up for a foil Layers L3 and L6 represent power/ground layers. When the final board. imaged patterned is produced, it can provide another signal layer pair or a set of ground layers, or a pads-only pattern to support vias and component holes, as well as the device footprints of the electrical components and their associated fan-out patterns. Some of the advantages of this bonding method are:
Lower raw material cost Loose sheet copper foil and prepreg sheets are more economical than clad laminate. Lower consumable material cost The reduction in imaging resist and chemistry results in a cost savings. Lower labor cost The reductions in material handling and in the processes of imaging and pre-lamination result in less total labor.
27.3.2.2 Clad Outer Stack-Up. Figure 27.10 depicts the same eight-layer design as Fig. 27.9, except the outerlayers are formed with a clad laminate. This stack-up arrangement requires four clad details, as compared to only three for the foil-stacked board shown in Fig. 27.9. This makes the clad outer board more expensive than the more commonly used foil outer construction. However, the clad outer design has one less B-stage opening and no copper foil. In addition, the clad outer boards are patterned on only one side prior to lamination. These factors partially offset the higher cost of this design. In Fig. 27.10, notice how the layer pairs have changed position placement. Layers L3 and L6 are now paired with a signal layer, which may
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