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MULTILAYER MATERIALS AND PROCESSING
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FIGURE 27.22
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Micrograph of a nonconductive via fill with defective features.
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within their plating process to determine the integrity of the metalization. The flowcharts illustrate the fabrication methods employing a panel plate scheme. The flow could also be modified for a pattern plate methodology. The two process flows are illustrated in Figs. 27.23 and 27.24. The key via fill process steps are highlighted for clarity. 27.3.5.3.1 Pre-Via-Fill Processing (Plating Variables). The plateability of via fill material is an important feature to understand due to industry trends that have shown that plated caps may be problematic in some design constructions. Outgassing of the fill material may separate the metallization during sequential lamination or thermal stress. Poor adhesion can also contribute to a separation but typically can be screened with standard tape testing. Figure 27.25 illustrates a cap-plated buried structure and a micrograph showing a cap-plated via with separation occurring. When the main design attribute is to limit resin from flowing into to holes at sequential, lamination, the plating over the filled structure may not be required. Here, the filled panel after planarization can be staged for lamination. Figure 27.26 illustrates a noncap-plated buried structure, and the micrograph shows a noncap-plated via with lamination separation occurring.
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( Fab Process Shown Starting with Completed Innerlayers) Layer Process Lay-up & Lamination Drill/X-Ray Deburr Plasma
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IN PROCESS COUPON Glass Etch Electroless Copper Electro-Plate (Panel)
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Image Pattern
Laminate
Drill/X-Ray Deburr
Plasma
Glass Etch
Final Plate
SOLDER MASK
INSPECT
HASL
SERIALIZE & MARKINGS
Rout
Electrical Test
INSPECT
X-Section Coupons
SHIP
FIGURE 27.23 Via fill flow in a noncap plate process (panel plate/button plate).
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
(Fab Process Shown Starting with Completed Innerlayers) Layer Process Lay-up & Lamination Drill/X-Ray Deburr Plasma
IN PROCESS COUPON Electroless Copper Electro-Plate (Panel)
Glass Etch
Image Button Pattern
Electro-Plate (Button)
Strip Resist Panel Clean
Fill Holes Cure/Planarize
Electroless Copper
Electro Plate
Image Pattern
Laminate
Drill/X-ray Deburr
Plasma
Glass Etch
Final Plate
SOLDER MASK
INSPECT
HASL
SERIALIZE & MARKINGS
Rout
Electrical Test
INSPECT
X-Section Coupone
SHIP
FIGURE 27.24
Via fill flow in a cap-plate process (button plate/panel plate).
FIGURE 27.25
Cap-plated filled structure.
FIGURE 27.26
Noncap-plated filled structure.
MULTILAYER MATERIALS AND PROCESSING
Each of these techniques requires the fabricator to understand the fill material compatibility with their base laminate system and plating processes. Typically, process compatibility can be screened with a simple solder-float thermal stress analysis and cross section. Prior to plating, the fabricator must understand the ability of the fill material to accept the electrolytic process. Some via fill materials have been reported to not be compatible with permanganate chemistry commonly found in electroless copper lines. Some cases of early failure of the via fill cap-plating integrity have been traced to this process. Elimination of the programming step to process the board through permanganate will avoid this incompatibility. Plasma desmear is the generally recommended preplating preparation step. Some resin chemistries that are loaded with ceramic are susceptible to excessive surface roughening if the plasma is too aggressive as is typical in a full etchback cycle. This becomes problematic when secondary nonfilled plated vias are required and are processed with a full etchback cycle. In this instance, it is best to choose a nonceramic filled material or modify the drill sequence so they are protected. Typically, the conductive fill materials may be electroplated directly, omitting the electroless process. If the final surface plate has secondary drilled holes that require metallization, all features may be exposed to the electroless process anyway. If directly plating the material, the fabricator should characterize the material to confirm peel strength because some cases of plating separation have been traced to poor adhesion in direct plate applications. Therefore, when choosing a via fill material, it is best to develop a process map of the required via structure processing and understand the process sequence of when drilling, filling, and plating occur. Figure 27.27 illustrates a typical manufacturing process targeting plating allowances for the successive plating steps prior to via filling. The first plating step establishes the minimum wrap plating requirement, and deposit thickness should be adjusted for the procurement specification and the balance of final plating. Here the substrate has a panel plate followed by a button plate. One advantage of the button plate is that it serves as a visual guide for the planarization removal process. Acting as a gauge, the button, when completely sanded off, indicates any additional sanding can be assumed to reduce the wrap plating.
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