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detect flaws and the associated intense labor. AOI is the industry standard for inspecting innerlayers. AOI has the advantage of being able to detect circuit nicks and protrusions. False errors can be a problem and are time consuming to confirm. AOI technology using CAD reference (the comparison of the circuit image to the design data) has a lower escape rate. Cleanliness and copper oxidation are factors that can influence poor performance in most AOI technologies. Two common methods exist for imaging the circuit. In one, the innerlayer is scanned with a tiny laser spot that causes the substrate to fluoresce. The circuit is seen as a dark image against the light emitted from the substrate. The other method illuminates the circuit with a bright light so that its image appears bright against the dark background of the substrate. Both methods have strengths and weaknesses. The fluorescent method is blind to surface flaws, and substrate flaws can confuse it. The top-light method is oversensitive to the surface appearance of the copper. The AOI inspection of high-density features presents new challenges to the technology related to minimizing false errors. Modern machines employ a combination of image acquisition techniques while performing virtual reasoning against a background scan of design rules that are compared to the design image data.
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Adhesion Promotion Epoxy does not adhere well to untreated copper surfaces. This means that some type of treatment must be applied to the innerlayer before lamination. One option is to use doubletreated copper, discussed earlier. Double-treated copper has a rough surface with a treatment supplied by the material vendor. Many ML-PWB fabricators report excellent results with double-treated copper. Others report problems with contamination and difficulty with rework. The alternative to using pretreated copper foil is to use a chemical treatment after etching. 27.4.10.1 Copper Oxide, Reduced Copper Oxide, and Alternative Oxides. There are many variations of the copper oxide treatment, but they all work by producing a rough surface topology that enhances adhesion. Depending on the exact nature of the treatment, the color varies from a light brown to a velvet-like black appearance. The differences among the treatments include the density of the oxide and the ratio of cupric oxide to cuprous oxide. To maximize bond strength, the fabricator should avoid oxide formulations that form tall vertical crystalline structures. Low-profile, self-limiting formulations generally provide the most consistent adhesion. Most copper oxide treatments are applied by dipping the innerlayer in a hot (85 to 95 C) caustic bath for 1 min. or more. The oxide process generally uses a batch process that requires vertical racking of the layers. Rack design is critical to prevent problems with innerlayer damage and contamination. By minimizing the contact points, the fabricator can eliminate this concern. Racks require coating to insulate conductive contact to reduce electromotive effect in the oxide chemistry, which will polarize conductors and prevent oxide from being applied on random isolated traces. Since the oxide treatment is done after inspection and immediately prior to lamination, it can be the source of quality problems if improperly done. The copper oxide surface treatment is very soluble in acids such as those found in the electroless copper line. If the epoxy-copper interface is fractured during drilling, the dark oxide will dissolve during the plating process, leaving a distinct pink ring around holes. This is not a serious reliability threat; it is generally considered a cosmetic problem but it often causes false concern. One way to minimize pink ring problems is to use an oxide reduction step after oxide formation. This step converts the copper-oxide crystals back to copper metal, preserving their topology. This reduced oxide surface has limited shelf life, so lamination should follow this process within 48 hours. Reduced peel strength should be expected as well. Copper oxide treatments are not recommended for material systems that require processing temperatures significantly above 180 C. This includes Teflon and some forms of polyimide
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