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Typical temperature and pressure cycle for hydraulic lamination.
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MULTILAYER MATERIALS AND PROCESSING
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27.5.5.1 B-Stage Melt. During the melt cycle, the B stage is solid and the pressure should be low. Excessive pressure during this portion of the cycle will damage the glass cloth and exaggerate problems with image print-through, also known as telegraphing. Most press cycles start with a low pressure known as a kiss pressure. The kiss pressure is high enough to ensure good thermal contact without damaging the ML-PWB.The length of the kiss cycle depends on the heating rates and the cure kinetics of the B stage. In a hot press cycle, the ML-PWB stack is loaded into a preheated press, and the heating rate may approach 20 C/min. In a hot press, the kiss cycle should be limited to a few minutes, or the B stage will begin to cure before flow is complete. At the opposite extreme, the press is loaded cold, and the heating rate is determined by the heating ramp of the press. For a slow heating rate of 5 C/min., a kiss cycle of 15 min. is appropriate. Some LFAC laminates, however, have process guidelines where a best practice is to have a kiss cycle with 0 psi with a slow heat rise on the order of not more than 15 C/min. until approximately a 90 C internal temperature. This step is held for 30 40 min. to drive out moisture before pressure is applied and the flow stage initiates. 27.5.5.2 B-Stage Flow. The second portion of the cycle begins when the B stage liquefies, but before its viscosity begins to rise due to curing. In this region of the cycle, the liquid Bstage flows and encapsulates the circuitry. As long as the internal features are surrounded by liquid B stage, print-through is not an issue. The key to good results is to select a pressure that will allow reproducible resin flow but that does not squeeze out all available resin before the progressing cure stops the flow. Once again, the exact pressure depends on the temperature cycle, the B-stage viscosity characteristics, and the B-stage cure kinetics. For a fast-curing B stage and a fast temperature ramp, pressures as high as 600 psi may be needed to ensure complete circuit encapsulation. On the other hand, with a slow ramp and a long B-stage working time, high pressures give excessive flow and best results are obtained at 200 psi. Improper melt staging can result in footballing, a term used to describe a panel whose center is significantly thicker than its outside. To determine proper melt, it is recommended to install a thermocouple in the center stack edge to chart the actual heat rise through the flow. A typical dicy-cured FR-4 multifunctional epoxy has a flow range, called the critical range, at the temperatures between 70 130 C. HF and LFAC laminates have a critical range typically between 80 140 C. During the critical range, the heat rate input and pressure are critical variables. A typical dicy-cured FR-4 press recipe would be 4 8 C/min. rise at 200 to 300 psi pressure. HF and LFAC laminates recipes are usually lower in the rate of rise and higher in pressure, such as 2 4 C /min. and 225 360 psi pressure. Table 27.5 shows some press recipes from the processing guidelines posted on the laminators web pages. This table is intended to illustrate that moving from standard FR-4 to other HF or LFAC laminates will require the development of new press recipes.
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TABLE 27.5 Press Recipes for Selected Materials Tg C (DSC) Standard DicyCured FR-4 Non-Dicy FR-4 Laminate HF Laminate LFAC Laminate A LFAC Laminate B LFAC Laminate C LFAC Laminate D LFAC Laminate E Polyimide 175 155 160 185 190 210 190 215 250 Rise ( C/min.) 4 7 2 4 2.3 5.6 4.4 7 2.3 5.6 2 4 2 4.5 2 2 4 Critical range ( C) 70 130 80 140 >100 70 130 83 139 80 140 80 135 80 135 80 138 Pressure (psi) 200 300 275 360 380 200 300 225 325 275 360 200 300 300 225 275 Cure time (min.)/Temp ( C) 60/182 90/193 90/200 75/185 75/193 90/193 120/200 120/200 200/218
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