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PREPARING BOARDS FOR PLATING
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28.1 INTRODUCTION
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A major part of manufacturing printed circuit boards involves wet process chemistry.The plating aspects of wet chemistry include deposition of metals by electroless (metallization) and electrolytic (electroplating) processes. Topics to be described here are multilayer processing, electroless copper, direct metallization, electroplating of copper and resist metals, nickel and gold for edge connector (tips), tin-lead fusing, and alternative coatings. Specific operating conditions, process controls, and problems in each area will be reviewed in detail. The effects of plating on image transfer, strip, and etching are also described in this chapter. See the printed circuit plating flowchart in Fig. 28.1. Two driving forces have had major influence on plating practices: the precise technical requirements of electronic products and the demands of environmental and safety compliance. Recent technical achievements in plating are evident in the capability to produce complex, high-resolution multilayer boards. These boards show narrow lines (3 to 6 mil), small holes (12 mil), surface-mount density, and high reliability. In plating, such precision has been made possible by the use of improved automatic, computer-controlled plating machines, instrumental techniques for analysis of organic and metallic additives, and the availability of controllable chemical processes. Military-specification-quality boards are produced when the procedures given here are closely followed.
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28.2 PROCESS DECISIONS
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Process and equipment needs dictate the physical aspect of the facility and the character of the process, and vice versa. Some important items to consider are the following. 28.2.1 Facility Considerations 1. Multilayer and two-sided product mix: Lamination presses and innerlayer processes are required. 2. Circuit complexity: Dry film, photoimageable resist, and a clean room are needed.
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Level of reliability (application of product): Extra controls and testing are required. Volume output: Equipment sizing and building space are needed. Use of automatic versus manual line: Productivity, consistency, and a workforce are required. Wastewater treatment system: Water and process control capability must be available.1 Environmental and personnel safety; compliance with laws. Costs. 28.2.2 Process Considerations
1. Material: The principal printed board material discussed will be NEMA grade FR-4 or G-10, that is, epoxyfiberglass clad with 1.2-, 1-, or 2-oz. copper. Other materials will be briefly mentioned because they can significantly alter plating and related processes. 2. Standard: Plated through hole (PTH) is the current standard of the industry. The following purposes, objectives, and requirements apply to both multilayer and two-sided boards: a. Purposes: Circuit density; double-sided circuitry b. Objectives: Side-to-side electrical connection; ease of component attachment; high reliability c. Requirements: Complete coverage; even thickness; a hole-to-surface ratio of 0.001 in. minimum; no cracks; no voids, nodules, or inclusions; no pull-away; no epoxy smear; minor resin recession; optimum metallurgical structure; M/L compatibility 3. Image transfer: Photoimageable, dry film, or screening of plating resists will depend on board complexity, volume, and labor skills. 4. Electroless copper: The type chosen will depend on the method of image transfer as well as on the need for panel plating. These processes are readily automated. The largest percentage (estimates are as high as 95 percent) of printed circuit board manufacturers worldwide rely on the electroless copper method for hole metallization. 5. Direct metallization technology (DMT): Some of the FIGURE 28.1 Printed wiring board plating flowchart. remaining printed circuit board manufacturers have eliminated the electroless copper step and converted to DMT. Developed in the 1980s, DMT methods produce a conductive surface on the nonconductive through-hole surfaces (see Chap. 30 for a detailed discussion). Electroless copper baths contain formaldehyde and chelators. In addition, the baths use large volumes of water, are difficult to control, and make it difficult to treat waste. DMT claims include increased productivity, ease of control, and lower hazardous material involvement. Because of these characteristics, DMT will probably gain significant acceptance as a primary hole metallization method.2 Acceptance of the DMT process has been delayed by the high cost of conveyorized equipment and chemicals. DMT primary technologies include: a. Palladium b. Carbon-graphite c. Conductive polymer d. Other methods (see Chap. 30 for further information)
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