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TABLE 28.3 Electroless Copper Processes Operation and control Low deposition Copper HCHO NaOH Temperature Air agitation Filtration Tank design Heater Panel loading Replenish mode Idle time, control Deposition time Thickness 3 g/l 6 9 g/l 6 9 g/l 65 85 F Mild Periodic Static Teflon 0.25 1.5 ft2/gal Manual 70 85% 20 min 20 min Medium deposition 2.8 g/l 3.5 g/l 10 11 g/l 115 5 F Mild/moderate Continuous Overflow, separate sump Teflon 0.1 2.0 ft2/gal Manual or continuous Turn off heat 20 min 40 60 min Heavy deposition 2.0 g/l 3.3 g/l 8 g/l 115 5 F Moderate Continuous Overflow, separate sump Teflon 0.1 2.0 ft2/gal Automatic Turn off heat 20 30 min 60 100 min
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pull-away can be caused by insufficient texturing of the epoxy dielectric during the desmear process, overconditioning, overcatalyzation, or insufficient acceleration. The electroless copper bath may become overactive and plate a stressed deposit. Ensuring that the process is functioning as specified with regard to dwell times, chemical concentrations, and bath temperature are the corrective actions. 3. Bath decomposition. This is rapid plating out of the copper. Common causes are bath imbalance, overloading, overheating, lack of use, tank wall initiation, and contamination. 4. Electroless copper to-copper-clad bond failure. Copper-to-copper adhesion failures can occur on the surface or on the innerlayers. Surface copper adhesion failures arise from unclean copper. Dry-film and/or developing residues, overconditioning, insufficient rinsing, insufficient microetch, and overcatalyization are common causes. Innerlayer copper-to-copper adhesion failures, commonly referred as ICD, may be due to all the items mentioned. Further causes may be related to the electroless copper bath itself. A stressed deposit due to high bath activity or decomposition has poor integrity and may fail under reliability testing. Specific additives in supplier formulations may contribute to ICDs as well. 5. Staining. Copper oxidation is due to moisture or contamination on the copper surface. Corrective action involves dipping boards in antitarnish or hard rinsing in DI water.
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TABLE 28.4 Electroless Copper Function of constituents Constituent Copper salt Reducing agent Complexer pH controller Additives CuSO4 5 H2O HCHO EDTA, tartrates, Rochelle salts NaOH NaCN, metals, S, N, CN organics Function Supplies copper Cu+2 + 2e Cu0 Holds Cu+2 in solution at high pH; controls rate Controls pH (rate) 11.5 12.5 optimum for HCHO reduction Stabilize, brighten, speed rate, strengthen
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Process Outline This outline presents the typical steps in an electroless copper process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Rack Clean and condition Water rinse Surface copper etch (microtech) Water rinse Sulfuric acid (optional) Water rinse Preactivator Activator (catalyst) Water rinse Postactivator (accelerator) Water rinse Electroless copper Rinse Sulfuric acid or antitarnish Rinse Scrub (optional) Rinse Copper flash plate (optional) Dry Release to image transfer
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Significant portions of this chapter are drawn from Edward F. Duffek, Ph.D., Preparing Boards for Plating, Printed Circuits Handbook, 5th ed, Clyde F. Coombs (ed.), 2001, Chap. 28.
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1. Carano, M., Proceedings of 16th AESF/EPA Pollution Prevention & Control Conference, 1995, p. 179. 2. Nargi-Toth, K., Printed Circuit Fabrication, Vol. 15, No. 34, September 1992. 3. Deckert, C. A., Couble, E. C., and Bonetti, W. F., Improved Post-Desmear Process for Multilayer Boards, IPC Technical Review, January 1985, pp. 12 19. 4. Batchelder, G., Letize, R., and Durso, Frank, Advances in Multilayer Hole Processing, MacDermid Company. 5. Stone, F. E., Electroless Plating Fundamentals and Applications, G. Mallory and J.B. Hajdu (eds.), American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, Inc., 1990, Chap. 13. 6. Deckert, C. A., Electroless Copper Plating, ASM Handbook, Vol. 5, 1994, pp. 311 322. 7. Murray, J., Plating, Part 1: Electroless Copper, Circuits Manufacturing, Vol. 25, No. 2, February 1985, pp. 116 124.
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