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TIN ELECTROPLATING
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Tin is used extensively for plating electronic components and PC boards due to its solderability, corrosion resistance, and metal etch-resist properties. The current MIL-STD-275 does not include tin plating, although earlier versions stated a required thickness of 0.0003 in. Specifications covering tin plating are MIL-T-10727 and MIL-P-38510, which say that tin must be fused on component leads.
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Acid Tin Sulfate This is the most widely used system. Among the many processes available, some produce bright deposits for appearance and corrosion resistance; others give matte deposits, which can be fused as well as soldered after long-term heating. Tin sulfate baths are somewhat difficult to control, especially after prolonged use.2,3 Table 29.7 describes their operation and control. 29.8.1.1 Process Controls Agitation A filter pump circulates the solution without allowing air to be introduced. Cathode rod agitation is also useful for a wider range of plating current densities. Filtration A 3 to 10 mm polypropylene filter is needed to control excess cloudiness and sludge formation. Temperature The preferred temperature for deposit luster and visual appearance is 60 to 65 F. Use cooling coils. Baths can operate up to 85 F, but may result in smoky, hazy deposits. Carbon treatment Light carbon filtration at room temperature removes organic contaminations. New baths are also made up if problems continue with deposit quality, solderability, thickness control, and cost-effectiveness.
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TABLE 29.7 Acid Tin Sulfate: Operation and Control Operating conditions: Tin Sulfuric acid Carrier, additives Temperature Cathode current density Current efficiency Plating rates Anodes: Type Composition Bags Hooks Length Current density
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2 oz./gal 10 12% by volume Replenish by Ah usage and spectrophotometry 60 65 F for bright, 65 85 F for matte 10 30 100% 0.3 mil @25 A/ft2 Bars Pure tin Polypropylene Monel or titanium Rack length minus 2 in 5 20 A/ft2
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Contaminations These include three groups of contaminants. Organics These come from additives and breakdown of resist. Metallic The effects of metallic contaminants on the plated deposits and the maximum levels allowable are as follows: copper darkness, 5 to 10 ppm; cadmium dullness, 50 ppm; zinc dullness, 50 ppm; nickel streaks, 50 ppm; iron dullness, 50 to 120 ppm; and chromium dullness, 5 ppm. Nonmetallic The maximum level allowable is 75 ppm of chloride. Anodes To maintain tin content, remove anodes when the bath is idle.
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29.8.1.2 Solution Controls Bath constituents Stannous sulfate and sulfuric acid are maintained by analysis, additives by spectrophotometry, Ah usage, Hull cell, and the percentage of sulfuric acid additions. Electronic-grade chemicals Such chemicals must be used to control metallic contaminations of cadmium, zinc, iron, and so on. Control additive Low levels of additives must be maintained. Hull cell This test is useful for control of additive levels and plating quality. See Sec. 29.12.4 for the procedure. Rinsing after plating Adequate rinsing after plating is important to control white or black spots on tin surfaces. Visual observation When plated, tin has a uniform lustrous finish. The deposit should be smooth to the touch.
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Dull deposits These are due to an out-of-balance condition of the main solution constituents, that is, low acid (<10 percent), high tin (>3 oz./gal), improper additive levels, contamination by metals or chlorides, or high temperatures (>65 F).
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Peeling tin Tin comes off due to low acid (<10 percent) or organic contamination. Slivers These are caused by overetching. A review of etching practice is indicated, as well as the use of 1.2 oz. copper foil. Pitting If substrate is not the cause, check precleaning, solution balance and contaminants, current efficiency, and current densities. High-current densities may cause pitting. Strip and etching residues Tin is attacked by strong alkaline solutions. To control residues and spotting, use mild room temperature stripping and alkaline-ammonia etching. Poor solderability This may be caused by excess additives or contaminations in the bath, poor rinsing, bath age, or excessive thicknesses (>0.3 mil).
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