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Many DMT processes work better than electroless copper on substrates with difficult resin systems such as PTFE, cyanate ester, or polyimide. 30.1.1.2 Direct Metallization Categories. 1. Palladium-based systems 2. Carbon or graphite systems 3. Conductive polymer systems 4. Other methods 30.1.2 Palladium-based Systems 30.1.2.1 Palladium/Tin Activator with Flash Electoplating. EE-1,2 the first commercialized direct metallization technique was invented in 1982 at Photocircuits and PCK. It uses a palladium/tin activator followed by mandatory flash electroplating. The flash-plating bath contains a polyoxyethylene compound to inhibit the deposition of copper on the foil surface without inhibiting deposition on palladium sites on nonconductive surfaces (holes, edges, substrate). Deposition occurs by propagation from the copper foil and grows epitaxially along the activated surface of the hole. Coverage takes about 5 to 6 min. This flash is pattern- or panelplated subsequently to full thickness in any electroplating bath. Microetching is incorporated in the accelerator to remove palladium sites and nail heads from innerlayers. A special cleaner/conditioner is used. This process has never been adapted to horizontal equipment. (See Fig. 30.1.) 30.1.2.2 Palladium/Tin Activator with Vanillin. DPS3 was invented in Japan in the late 80s. This method uses a palladium/tin activator with vanillin, followed by pattern or panel electroplating. It employs a special cleaner/conditioner and a carbonate accelerator.The three key solutions cleaner/conditioner, activator, and accelerator all operate at elevated temperatures. DPS has recently been adapted to horizontal equipment, but works well in the vertical mode, both manual and automatic. Following the last step, the Setter, DPS yields a stable, grayish conductive palladium film in the holes. It is believed that the cleaner/conditioner slightly solubilizes the activator, attracting it to the nonconductive surface, and that the vanillin lines up the palladium molecules, and directs them towards the work, hence giving lower electrical resistance and better adhesion to nonconductive surfaces. It is also claimed that there is little palladium/tin left on the copper foil, so it is easily soft-etched away in the normal electroplating preplate cycle. (See Fig. 30.2.) DPS was the first DMT process to suggest an meter as the standard quality assurance (QA) tool. 30.1.2.3 Converting Palladium to Palladium Sulfide. Crimson,4 invented by Shipley, employs a conversion step after the activator where palladium is changed to palladium sulfide, which is claimed to be more conductive for subsequent electrolytic copper plating. The enhancer stabilizes the conductive film so that it is chemically resistant to imaging steps. The stabilizer neutralizes residues from the enhancer, thereby preventing contamination of subsequent steps. The microetch selectively removes activator from copper surfaces to achieve optimum copper-to-copper bond and reliable dry film adhesion. The process works best in conveyorized horizontal equipment and can be followed by pattern or panel electroplating. (See Fig. 30.3.) 30.1.2.4 Process Variations. ABC,5 invented in Israel by Holtzman et al., is similar to EE-1. It has been adapted to conveyorized horizontal equipment, but must be followed by a flash electroplating in a proprietary bath. DMT falls into four broad categories:
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FIGURE 30.1 Principle of EE-1 process: (a) conditioning making glass and epoxy surfaces receptive of Pd catalyst sites; (b) palladium catalyst sites; (c) acceleration removes excess tin and microetch removes catalysts from the surface of Cu foil; (d) flush Cu plate coppers enter surface in drilling hole walls.
Conductron, from LeaRonal, is similar to DPS with the addition of a special cleaner/conditioner and a glass-etch step. It has been adapted to conveyorized horizontal equipment and can be followed by pattern or panel electroplating. Envision DPS, from Enthone-OMI, and Connect, from M & T (now Atotech), are fairly similar to each other, and to DPS, though each has a specific cleaner/conditioner and modified accelerator. No adaptation has been made to horizontal processing. Both processes can be followed by pattern or panel electroplating. Neopact,6 from Atotech, uses a tin-free palladium activator in colloidal form. The subsequent postdip removes the protective organic polymer from the palladium, leaving it exposed and with increased conductivity. It has been adapted to conveyorized horizontal equipment, works well in vertical, and can be followed by pattern or panel electroplating. (See Fig. 30.4.)
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