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32.7 IMMERSION TIN
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Immersion tin is a thin coating of pure tin, typically 0.6 to 1.2 mm thick, which protects the underlying copper from oxidation and provides a highly solderable surface.Tin is deposited using a galvanic displacement process and can be applied in vertical or conveyorized equipment.Tin boards are used primarily for solderability and have very good compliant pin connector functionality.
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Tin readily forms an intermetallic with copper, so tin can pose challenges with shelf-life, multiple soldering operations, and contact functions. Tin is also restricted in some regions due to environmental concerns over the use of the bath ingredient thiourea. 32.7.1 Chemical Coating As with all immersion metal systems, the copper needs to be perfectly clean and textured before the tin plating step.A predip is used to maintain proper chemical balance in the tin bath and prevent contamination. The tin deposition is not a direct galvanic displacement, since tin is more electronegative than copper.Thiourea is used in tin chemical formulation to create a copper-thiourea complex on the surface.This complex becomes more electronegative than tin, and then participates in the immersion reaction. Because of the need to drive the reaction, the tin bath contains relatively high concentrations of chemicals, which must be thoroughly rinsed. Waste treatment of the system is complicated due to high levels of thiourea. 32.7.2 Fabrication Process Table 32.9 shows the fabrication process for the immersion tin surface process, including chemicals used and dwell times.
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TABLE 32.9 Process Flow for Immersion Tin Process Cleaner Microetch Predip Tin Postdip (optional) Chemicals Aqueous solvents, detergents, and emulsifiers. Acid can help undercut residues and remove thick copper oxides. 1 2 mm of Cu is oxidized to Cu++ and dissolved. Normally, the ingredients of the tin bath without the tin metal itself. Tin, thiourea, acids, whisker inhibiting trace metals, chelation. Can be an extra cleaner for demanding ionic cleanliness applications. Time (min.) 1 4 0.5 1.0 1.0 4.0 12.0
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Few production installations use immersion tin in horizontal conveyorized applications due to the chemical process time and the higher temperatures used. Conveyorized lines are long and therefore expensive. The use of vertical tanks carrying baskets of panels for immersion tin plating makes better use of production floor space. Due to the high sulfur reactivity of the thiourea ingredient, tin lines should be dedicated to the tin process only and not mixed in with OSP, silver, or ENIG lines where sulfur can harm the surfaces. 32.7.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Table 32.10 compares the advantages and disadvantages of immersion tin used as a surface finish.
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TABLE 32.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Immersion Tin Surface Finish Tin Advantages Flat; fine-pitch assembly Inexpensive finish No Pb Cu/Sn solderjoint Excellent compliant pin functionality Less visible tarnish Reworkable Tin Disadvantages Handling-sensitive Use of thiourea (a carcinogen) Exposed tin on final assembly can corrode Whiskers Degradation with time/ heat and multiple reflow soldering Solder mask attack Difficult thickness measurement
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Other surface finishes include reflowed tin-lead, electrolytic nickel/electrolytic gold, antitarnish and reflux, electroless palladium, electroless gold, direct immersion gold, and solid solder deposit.
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Reflowed Tin-Lead Before the widespread use of solder mask, a primary method for protecting copper circuitry was to electroplate a coating of tin or tin-lead on the copper. After component insertion, the tin plating could be liquefied with oven or vapor-phase reflow to form solderjoints. The use of solder mask over bare copper to take advantage of surface mount, wave soldering, and mixed assembly restricted the use of tin plate finishing. For simple technology product, tin or tin-lead plate and reflow remains a viable fabrication and assembly method.
Electrolytic Nickel/Electrolytic Gold The electrolytic nickel-gold process employs galvanic electroplating. The circuit board is placed on a rack and electrically connected to a power supply (rectifier), When immersed in a solution of metal ions, the metals are reduced as a metal coating on the PCB by the supply of electrons.The metal thickness grows in a very predictable way depending on the time, current, area plated, and efficiency of the reaction. Relatively few PCBs are plated full-build with nickel-gold as the only finish. More frequently, the coating is applied selectively in combination with another finish such as OSP. For a large number of PCBs that employ edge tab connection, the PCB is electroplated in a special plating line where only the exposed edge features are immersed into the plating cell. Electroplated nickel-gold is expensive and difficult to use in high production, so it is commonly used only on features requiring high-force physical connections or gold wirebonding. Several micrometers of nickel are deposited, and 0.50 to 1.5 mm of gold protects the nickel from oxidation. Thick gold forms gold-containing phases in the solderjoint. The embrittlement of these phases has prevented the wide use of electrolytic nickel-gold as a solderable finish.
Antitarnish and Preflux Antitarnish surface finishes are thin, organic coatings designed to prevent copper oxidation. Antitarnish chemicals include imidazole and benzotriazole. Preflux coatings are resins or rosins. These materials cannot endure long storage times and normally can be used only for single-sided soldering operations. Much of the use of simple organic coating was replaced by OSP as the cost of OSP declined, but antitarnish and preflux chemicals are still used in simple PCB fabrication.
Electroless Palladium The original concept for electroless palladium was as an alternative to the high cost of gold. Palladium shows some of the oxidation resistance similar to precious metals, and can offer a good physically strong deposit for electrical contacts and wirebonding. However, palladium is a very difficult metal to deposit electrolessly, causing substantial engineering support and yield problems. The rise in the cost of palladium metal nearly removed it from any market share worldwide. Electroless palladium reemerged in OEM testing as a possible cure for ENIG black-pad, but it is not widely used. Palladium is sensitive to the environment, so a flash
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