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of immersion gold may be used over palladium. The coating is considered not reworkable. Palladium phases in the solderjoint pose an embrittlement hazard. 32.8.5 Electroless Gold Gold can protect copper and resist oxidation like no other metal. But electrolytic nickel-gold and ENIG both suffer from certain limitations. Electroless nickel with a coverlayer of electroless gold is intended to overcome these limitations. As with ENIG, electroless nickel underlayer is needed as a barrier layer to prevent copper to gold interdiffusion. Electroless gold can achieve a sufficient thickness to allow gold wirebonding and some physical connection functions. It also deposits much more uniform thickness than electrolytic gold. Better thickness control allows somewhat thinner coatings, so gold embrittlement can be prevented. Cost and process control considerations prevent more widespread use. In addition, all the limitations of the use of electroless nickel still apply when considering this finish.
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Direct Immersion Gold Because electroless nickel is the cause for many of the disadvantages of ENIG, some designers have considered the use of immersion or electroless gold directly on top of underlying copper. This process works for boards that are assembled without a long shelf-life and do not require multiple thermal excursions. Without the barrier coating of nickel, however, the copper and gold soon dissolve into each other and form an unsolderable oxidized intermetallic. As direct gold costs more than immersion silver or tin coatings, its main advantage is its improved possibility for gold wirebonding.
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Solid Solder Deposit Technologies exist for the deposition of solder onto the bare PCB at the fabrication shop using non-HASL techniques. One method employs the deposition of tin-lead with a physical flattening of the solder meniscus. Other methods have been proposed as well.The use of these deposition methods has not penetrated widely into the production market.
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Figure 32.4 shows a PCB as it progresses through the assembly and soldering process, showing the resulting intermetallics in cross section.
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Solderability Test Methods Refer to Chap. 42 for detailed information on solderability of PCB surface finishes. Testing methods are contained in the comprehensive joint industry specification ANSI/IPC J-STD 003. Surface finishes are commonly tested in production at the board fabricator using a solder float or solder dip method. When qualifying the finish, an OEM or assembler uses more equipmentspecific tests such as wetting balance, rotary dip, or paste spread methods. Solderability should be consistent from day to day and lot to lot, with very little degradation after exposure to at least three assembly thermal exposures.
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FIGURE 32.4 A surface finish progressing through assembly; the bare finish, with stenciled paste, as soldered, and in cross-sectional view of resulting intermetallics.
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Misprints For many years, a primary failure mode in PCB assembly was solderpaste misprints. Misprints occur when the solder stencil or screen does not form a close contact or good gasketing with the circuit features. If there is a gap between the stencil and the copper, or if the screen is slightly misregistered, solderpaste squeezes between the features, causing solder bridging and resulting in a lack of solder where the paste deposition was intended. The uneven surface of HASL is a chief cause of paste misprints. Flat surface finishes such as silver, tin, and OSP virtually eliminate solderpaste misprints. If misprints do occur for other reasons such as misalignment, the finish should be able to be cleaned, staged for reprinting, and soldered without any lack in wetting. OSP may be removed during misprint cleaning; the PCBs should be assembled immediately if this occurs.
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Shelf-Life, Storage, and Handling Each finish is vulnerable to solderability loss if the PCB is handled or stored in non-ideal environments. OSP, generally given a 6 to 12 month shelf-life, is degraded with time and temperature, as the organic and underlying copper can oxidize. Silver, with a shelf-life of 12 months, is affected by exposure to sulfur and chloride environments that can cause excessive tarnish. Tin, with a shelf-life of 6 to 12 months, forms intermetallics with copper over time and at elevated
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