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temperature. ENIG has a shelf-life exceeding 12 months and can withstand most environments, but is sensitive to steam aging and degrades more quickly than other finishes in mixed flowing gas testing. HASL is considered to have virtually unlimited shelf-life. The shelf-life of any PCB, with any surface finish, can quickly degrade if the parts are exposed to contaminating materials. Any contaminant film that prevents flux and solder from coming into intimate contact with the surface finish will result in non-wetting.
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Solderjoint Metallurgy The basic function of the circuit board is to act as a mechanical and electrical connection between components of an electrical device. Application of solder to a PCB surface results in the formation of an intermetallic compound. The metals in the solder and the metals on the PCB participate in the intermetallic formation. The intermetallic acts as the physical glue holding the solder to the circuitry. The type of intermetallic depends on the type of solder and the type of PCB finish. The vast majority of solders used in electronics (SnPb, SnAgCu, SnCu, SnCuNi) is based on tin. Most of the time, the tin forms an intermetallic with copper (Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5). The primary exceptions are ENIG and electrolytic NiAu finishes. Soldering to nickel-based finishes results in Ni3Sn4 and NiSn3 intermetallic compounds. The physical and electrical performance differences between copper and tin intermetallics do influence the design of electronic devices. In general, solderjoints formed using intermetallics of nickel are more brittle and lead to earlier failure in physical shock testing. HASL begins to form copper-tin intermetallics when the HASL is deposited at the PCB shop. When HASL is soldered at the assembly house, the HASL coating liquefies and mixes with the molten solderpaste or wave solder. The intermetallic formed at the PCB interface deepens with each thermal excursion. HASL intermetallics can reach thicknesses of concern to reliability engineers. Intermetallic layers formed using high tin content solders (Pb-free) grow more quickly due to the increased availability of tin and the elevated temperatures.With the consumption of copper into intermetallics, there is a concern with the thinning of copper, especially at the knee of plated through holes. The OSP coating is displaced by the flux during SMT and wave soldering. The exposed copper forms a copper-tin intermetallic with the solder. If the flux exposes more copper than the solder spreads, a ring of unprotected copper results. Some engineers consider this ring of exposed copper to pose a corrosion risk. For Pb-free soldering, best results are achieved by selecting a flux system that maintains activity throughout the entire soldering temperature range. Immersion silver dissolves into the tin phase of molten solder. The silver does not melt, but rather forms a solid solution. The dissolution rate of silver is in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 mm per sec. at standard soldering temperatures. Once the silver is dissolved, the underlying copper forms intermetallics with tin as discussed previously. Flux has little effect on silver, but can help clean trace contaminates and reduce surface tension. Immersion tin dissolves very quickly into SMT and wave solder.The tin may not melt ( m.p. 232 C) but dissolves into the liquefied solder readily. Even before soldering, the immersion tin begins to form intermetallics with the copper beneath. In fact, with extended storage, the tin may be completely consumed by intermetallics before soldering. At soldering temperatures, the copper-tin intermetallics form at much higher rates. Areas of the PCB exposed to the assembly temperatures, but not soldered, will form thicker and thicker intermetallic layers until the pure tin is consumed. ENIG is a special case.When exposed to solder, the top layer of gold very quickly dissolves into the tin phase at a rate of about 3 mm per sec. at standard assembly temperatures. Once the underlying nickel is exposed, it begins to form intermetallics with tin. Nickel dissolves very slowly in solder (<0.002 m per sec.) so the nickel remains as a barrier between solder and
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