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FIGURE 34.6 Flowchart for study of resolution of HDI etched product limitations. Profile and uniformity limitations may be studied for process improvement by progressing down the chart for contributing elements.
34.7.4.6 Stability and Control. It is important to measure and understand sources of variation in order to eliminate them. The gauging tools mentioned previously are very useful for collecting the data for analysis. One important feature is the positional and orientational variation in line geometry. Various conclusions can be taken from feature variation by location across the panel and orientation relative to the direction of motion. Repeating the gauging technique on a regular basis can allow observation of changing conditions within the process (such as plugged nozzles and other defects). Another type of variation can be obtained by examining a series of gauge panels progressively processed with specific time-lag variations. If etching chemical controls are not adequate, the etch rate may vary in the sequence and therefore cause line variation with time. Usually, regeneration equipment can be adjusted or modified to minimize these variations, but the value of such instrument upgrades can be determined easily by data recorded about the type and extent of defects incurred.
EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES
Etching equipment for circuit line formation has developed many variations on spray processing equipment. Often, as members of a coordinated automatic immersion plating process line, there are immersion etching tank varieties for microetching and surface preparation. However, for individual panels, conveyorized spray processing is clearly established because of efficient part handling and processing effectiveness.
Spray Equipment Basics 34.8.1.1 Construction. Etching equipment must be made from materials for long life, good dimensional stability, and resistance to chemicals and temperatures (130 F and higher). The basic construction includes rigid plastics (PVC, polypropylene, CPVC, and PVDF), metals (titanium, Hastalloy C), elastomers (vinyl, Viton A, Kel F, ethylene-propylene), specialized composites (epoxy-glass, graphite, and carbon-filled polymers, and other specialized formulations), and glass or clear and translucent polymers for visibility. The challenge is to select proper grades, compositions, and properties for mechanical strength, functionality, and durability. Equipment manufacturers perform these tasks in their design process.
ETCHING PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGIES
34.8.1.2 Controls. Controls and electronics are significant because the increasing robustness and precision can have a large impact on cost. Therefore, the compromise on costeffectiveness/technology trade-off often is made with a market-price primary goal. Therefore, cost-benefit analysis must be made by purchasers to evaluate available upgrades in instrumentation. The key controls are temperature, pressure, conveyor speed, and safety interlocks. Temperature is especially important because the etching reactions are usually exothermic and heat must be removed by cooling water coils to maintain stable rates. Conductivity, pH, density, ORP, and other process chemical control instruments may be added to monitor and control the processes. These instruments may be integrated into a PLC or computerized control system or may be individual control-panel stand-alone instrumentations. The wiring and the control cabinet itself must be suitably fume and hazard protected for water and chemical splashes as well as corrosive fumes. It is desired to have critical condition displays available to operators in the machine environment as well as some means of monitoring and recording process information. 34.8.1.3 Spray Strategies. Individual equipment designers have implemented very different types and mechanisms of spray attack on the panels. It is important to realize that the spray system design must be carefully integrated with the conveyor and mechanical design to minimize the effect of rods, wheels, panel control devices, and other mechanisms to achieve both uniformity and geometry of the features produced. It must be realized that the effect of the sprays is not merely the attack by droplets on the surface, but that the sprays are the prime drivers of the direction and effectiveness of the microchannel fluid flow on the panels. Therefore, separate controls and gauges must be provided for top and bottom spray arrays. For maximum precision, four quadrant controls are often beneficial. The mechanical spray arrays can be described as a variation of the following types. Fixed Spray Array. This is a system of spray tubes containing multiple nozzles connected transversely across the conveyor to a header pipe on one or both sides. The spray nozzles are placed into the tubes in a pattern designed to optimize the effect. Care must be taken to install and orient the nozzles properly for designed effect. Mechanical intervention to selectively activate (or deactivate) portions of the design to effect the fluid dynamics of particular patterns should be included. Oscillating Sprays. This system uses spray tubes that are connected generally to be aligned with the conveyor direction (often at a slight angle). The ends of the spray tubes are made with rotating seals so that the tubes can be moved back and forth by an oscillating crank or gearing mechanism. The nozzles move the liquid in a pattern generally across the conveyor travel. Individual spray tubes may be throttled and/or selectively activated. Reciprocation. These nozzles are usually placed in an array similar to the fixed system, and the entire array is moved by a cranking mechanism in a direction across the conveyor. Maximum precision offerings include various patterns of nozzles that can be separately valved and selectively activated by computer controls. Spray Nozzles. Spray nozzles are available in several types, sizes, and materials. For etching it has been established that PVDF nozzles are robust and consistent. The nozzle patterns are flat fan, full cone (round and squared), and open cone designs. Generally, flat fan nozzles have large openings and high impact for a given flow rate, while round cones have lower impact and orifice restrictions to ensure the pattern is filled. One of the principal failings of nozzles is simply clogging. The best array design can become dangerously nonuniform simply by plugging a small number of sprays. There is a commercially available nozzle that has a selfclearing fan design. Many are installed. For some applications, filtration between the pump and sprays has been installed to prevent plugging. Selection. All of these combinations of nozzles, arrays, and mechanisms offer benefits and drawbacks that are often counterintuitive to the end user. It is necessary, therefore, to test and evaluate the performance of the spray systems for the work type and working environment. Testing of performance must be evaluated in a carefully controlled trial or by comparison with a standardized gauging tool.
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