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manufactured in continuous rolls that can be threaded through multiple processes. In addition to the previous difficulties with planarity and drag-over, the precise synchronization of roller speed throughout all the processes is mandatory. Therefore, machine and processing speeds must be carefully planned at original manufacture to allow proper dwell settings and latitudes. Rinsing and drag-over present problems. 34.8.3 Rinsing Rinsing is a process technology that needs particular attention because of the multiple needs of uncontaminated panels, conservation of rinse waters, and environmental discharge limitations. It is no longer sufficient to flood the panel with large amounts of water that are then discharged to sewers. The capability of technical analysis of this process has been published.46 34.8.3.1 Cascade Rinsing. The principal tool to effect the required change is the concept of multiple-stage cascade rinsing. This process includes the concept that a robust flow recirculated on a panel can reduce the concentration to a level in equilibrium with a much lower circulated water stream. The lower stream passes through a series of chambers of increasing concentration, while the work passes through a series of chambers of increasing cleanliness (in reverse order from the water). The end result is a small use of water capturing a relatively high level of contamination. The contamination level is many times the discharge limit for direct environmental discharge. However, the fact that the stream is relatively small and highly concentrated allows for reasonable treatment and recovery of by-products by ion exchange, direct electrowinning, or membrane cell concentration. In certain circumstances, the waste stream may be comingled with a main process stream for recycling (see Fig. 34.1). 34.8.3.2 Drag-over Minimization. All of the contamination that eventually ends up in the water stream is that introduced by drag-over from the process itself (or from a recirculated environmental rinse). Therefore, the first step in successful rinsing is the reduction or prevention of materials from the panel. The conventional means of attempting this is by a set of pinch or squeegee rollers at the output of the chemical module. These rollers may be increased in effectiveness by softness or by pressure. Often, rollers made of PVA foam have been employed effectively. However, these rollers must be kept clean and moist to be effective. Other methods include improved baffling, ensuring capture of overspray, and low-velocity air blow-off. Proper management of drag-over on conveyorized equipment has reduced residues by a factor of 10 or better. Thin panels cause difficulties because the compromise made between conveying reliability devices and planarity and contact of squeegee rollers and surface tension reduces effectiveness of retention. Thick panels (over 0.125 in) also cause problems because squeegee rollers and baffles must lift to clear the panels, allowing gaps for solution escape. It is therefore a subject for engineering study and process management trade-off decisions that must be considered during the specification process.
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1. E.Armstrong and E. F. Duffek, Electronic Packaging and Production, vol. 14, no. 10, October 1974, pp. 125 130. 2. W. Chaikin, C. E. McClelland, J. Janney, and S. Landsman, Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 51, 1959, pp. 305 308. 3. Jieh-Hwa Shyu, Electrochemical Studies of Etching Mechanisms in Ammoniacal Etchants, IPC TP751, October 1988. 4. U.S. Patent 3,466,208, J. Slominski, 1969. 5. U.S. Patent 3,231,503, E. Laue, 1966. 6. U.S. Patent 3,705,061, E. King, 1972. 7. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, rev. ed., Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1957, p. 464.
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8. Marshall I. Gurian, Rinsing as a Process Technology, Paper T14, Proceedings of Printed Circuit World Convention VI, San Francisco, May 1993. 9. U.S. Patent 3,440,036, W. Spinney, 1966. 10. Solvent Extraction Technology, Center for Professional Advancement, Somerville, NJ, 1975. 11. Galvano Organo, Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 16, no. 1, January 1993, pp. 42 47. 12. Atotech USA, Inc., State College, PA. 13. K. Murski and P. M.Wible, Problem-Solving Processes for Resist Developing, Stripping, and Etching, Insulation/Circuits, February 1981. 14. C. Swartzell, Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 5, no. 1, January 1982, pp. 42 47, 65. 15. G. Parikh, E. C. Gayer, and W. Willard, Western Electric Engineer, vol. XVI, no. 2, April 1972, pp. 2 8; Metal Finishing, March 1972, pp. 42, 43. 16. L. Missel and F. D. Murphy, Metal Finishing, December 1969, pp. 47 52, 58. 17. F. Gorman, Regenerative Cupric Chloride Copper Etchant, Proceedings of the California Circuits Association Meeting, 1973; Electronic Packaging and Production, January 1974, pp. 43 46. 18. U.S. Patent 3,306,792, W. Thurmal, 1963. 19. L. H. Sharpe and P. D. Garn, Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 51, 1959, pp. 293 298. 20. J. O. E. Clark, Marconi Rev., vol. 24, no. 142, 1961, pp. 134 152. 21. O. D. Black and L. H. Cutler, Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 50, 1958, pp. 1539 1540. 22. U.S. Patent 4,130,454, B. Dutkewych, C. Gaputis, and M. Gulla, 1978. 23. U.S. Patent 3,801,512, C. Solenberger, 1974. 24. U.S. Patent 4,130,455, L. Elias and M. F. Good, 1978. 25. U.S. Patent 3,476,624, J. Hogya and W. J. Tillis, 1969. 26. A. Luke, Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 8, no. 10, October 1985, pp. 63 76. 27. U.S. Patent 2,978,301, P. A. Margulies and J. E. Kressbach, 1961. 28. E. B. Saubestre, Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 51, 1959, pp. 288 290. 29. W. F. Nekervis, The Use of Ferric Chloride in the Etching of Copper, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI, 1962. 30. U.S. Patent 4,482,425, J. F. Battey, 1984. 31. U.S. Patent 4,497,687, N. J. Nelson, 1985. 32. Don Ball, The Surface Mechanics of Fine-Line Etching, Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 21, no. 11, 1998. 33. F. T. Mansur and R. G. Autiello, Insulation, March 1968, pp. 58 61. 34. H. R. Johnson and J. W. Dini, Insulation, August 1975, p. 31. 35. P. F. Kury, J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 103, 1956, p. 257. 36. Marshall Gurian, Process Effects Analysis for Fine Line Production, IPC Paper WCIV-28, Printed Circuit World Convention IV, Tokyo, 1987. 37. Marshall Gurian, Reliable Fine Line Wet Processing, Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 10, no. 12, 1987. 38. Marshall Gurian, Fine Line Processing: The 90 s Are Here! Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 13, no. 5, 1990. 39. U.S. Patent 5,904,863, Michael Hatfield and Marshall Gurian. 40. Michael Brassard and Diane Ritter, The Memory Jogger II, Goal/QPC, Methuen, MA. 41. Yasuo Tanaka, Hireyuki Urabe, and Morio Gaku, Three Micron Copper Foil Clad Laminate for 30/30 Micron Line/Space Circuit, CircuiTree, vol. 10, no. 11, 1997. 42. Igor Kadija and James Russel, New Wet Processing for HDI s, CircuiTree, vol. 12, no. 5, 1999. 43. U.S. Patents 5,024,735, 5,114,558, and 5,167,747, Igor Kadija. 44. Karl Dietz, Process and Material Adaptations for HDI Requirements, CircuiTree, vol. 13, no. 12, 2000. 45. U.S. Patent 4,607,590, Don Pender. 46. Marshall Gurian, Rinsing as a Process Technology, Paper T14, Proceedings of the Printed Circuit World Convention VI, 1993; summarized in Printed Circuit Fabrication, vol. 20, no. 7, 1997.
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