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CNC multiple-spindle routing Manual pin routing
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The similarities consist of the use of high-speed spindles, utilizing carbide cutting tools, and generating high cutting rates. 35.4.1 Pin Routing Pin routing is a manual routing process utilizing a template that has been machined of aluminum, FR-4 laminate, or a fiber-reinforced phenolic. The template is made to the finished board dimensions and has tooling pins installed to register to the board s tooling holes. The package (which can have up to four pieces in a stack) is routed by tracking the template against a pilot pin protruding from the router table. The pin height is less than the template thickness. Usually, the machine pilot pin is the same diameter as the router bit and can be offset adjusted to give the operator flexibility in optimizing dimensions. Work should be fed against the rotation of the cutter to prevent the cutter from grabbing. Pin routing can be an economical process when a small generation of boards is profiled, or if the shapes required are relatively simple. For pin routing to be effective, generally a very skilled operator is required to fabricate the template and to route the boards. Outside machine shops can build aluminum route fixtures for each customer application; however, lead times and costs per order must be considered. Pin routing is usually used by small shops not able to invest in the CNC equipment and its associated support, or as a specialty process, off-line from CNC routing. In the best pin-routing operations, the volumes produced cannot be compared with those of multiple-spindle routing. 35.4.2 CNC Mechanical Routing Applications The applications of CNC routing extend well beyond merely cutting board profiles. The ability to produce boards in multiple-image modules reduces handling not only in the board shop, but in every subsequent operation, from packing, component assembly, wave solder, and test. This is of special value when dealing with a postage-stamp-size part or wire-bondable gold surfaces. Where handling must be minimized, the module acts as a pallet throughout these operations. In addition, unusual or irregular shapes, small or large, can be palletized to simplify handling and conveyance. In Fig. 35.5, examples of tab-routed, or multiple-image, modules are shown.
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FIGURE 35.5 Examples of tab-routed, or multiple-image, modules.
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In Fig. 35.6, each part is shown attached to the frame with breakable or removable tabs and can include features permitting tab removal below the board edge of the image periphery. Note on Fig. 35.6 the use of a score line to ease tab removal. Scoring, alone or in concert with routing (as discussed in Sec. 35.5), can play a large role in board and pallet separation.
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FIGURE 35.6 Each part is shown attached to the frame with breakable or removable tabs.A variety of breakable tabs is shown. Also shown is a score line for ease of tab removal.
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FIGURE 35.7 Multiple-image palletization.
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Beyond multiple-image palletization, as shown in Fig. 35.7, CNC routing can provide a variety of board requirements including:
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Internal cutouts Slots Counter bores Board edge conditioning for plating
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There are many benefits available through CNC routing beyond those of efficient part profiling. A little planning before the release to production can improve manufacturability as well as provide many no-cost benefits to assembly, soldering, and so on. 35.4.3 CNC Operation CNC router equipment has the ability to process high volumes of circuit boards very accurately and economically, yet it is coupled with features to enable quick program and setup. This coupling enables the same processing used for high volume to be utilized for prototypes and short-lead-time production. With circuit board data files so universally available, the part programming time has dropped to a few minutes, as opposed to the hours it once took, while setups remain at about 15 to 20 min., plus cutter labyrinth and first article routing. Router operation consists of multiple spindles (two to five) capable of operating from 6,000 to 36,000 r/min. or more. The router path (x-y table movement and spindle plunge and retract) is determined by program. This permits any number of paths and any location. The preferred method of registration of the panel to the machine table is to use the full panel and the tooling holes previously drilled. Tooling holes internal to the part provide for the highest accuracy, although manufacturing panel tooling may be used if considered earlier in the process. 35.4.4 Mechanical Routing with CNC Equipment Mechanical routing is the most common technology used for rigid circuit board routing. The cuts are obtained with a metal cutter. 35.4.4.1 Cutter Offset. Since the cutter must follow a path described by its centerline, it must be offset from the desired board edge by an amount equal to its effective radius. This is the basic cutter radius, and it will vary with the cutter tooth form. Most newer-generation equipment will automatically adjust for the cutter radius. However, either manually or automatically, this is a basic element of routing planning. Since the cutters deflect during the
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