barcode scanner code in asp.net The Rule of 10s in Software

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The Rule of 10s
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One reason to test is to block the addition of further value to defective product. Consider the printed wiring board as a component of a completed assembly. A commonly accepted relative measure of the cost of faults in a completed electronic assembly can be expressed by the rule of 10s (see Fig. 36.1).The idea is that the earlier a fault is caught, the less it will cost. An example might be an open in a bare board that is not found at bare board test. The faulty bare board is now loaded with the components, soldered, and tested. If the fault is found at the loaded board level, repair or scrapping of the assembled board is much more expensive than repair or scrapping at the bare board level. There are situations where the assembler of the board charges back to the manufacturer of the bare board some portion of the cost of the scrapped components, assembly labor, and/or production cost. This is increasingly true with the high-cost and high-capability integrated circuits (ICs) present in so many designs. A fault that passes a system-level test and makes it to the end user entails even higher cost. Some of these costs are very tangible in the form of field service labor, downtime, parts, and labor. Other FIGURE 36.1 Rule of 10s: cost of a found costs are counted in lost business and reputation.
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Satisfying Customer Requirements Where the rule of 10s is a logical big-picture approach to the necessity of testing, requirement from a customer is quite the opposite. The board user has already determined that electrical
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BARE BOARD TEST OBJECTIVES AND DEFINITIONS
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testing is appropriate and necessary and has made it a requirement as part of supplying the board. It is the obligation and responsibility of the bare board manufacturer to meet this requirement of purchase contracts. In practice, we find such customer requirements stated in various ways. 36.3.2.1 Generic or 100 Percent Board Test. Unfortunately, this requirement may be nothing more than the words 100 percent electrical test appearing somewhere in a purchase order or a larger package of documentation. Not only is such a specification relatively meaningless, but the issuer of such a requirement is led to believe that the boards will be tested to the most stringent requirements that it will not be possible for a single bad board to be delivered. Nothing could be further from the truth. Such a specification fails to define what a 100 percent test consists of.The purchaser of the bare board will certainly be dissatisfied when he or she receives a bad board. Although the specific fault on the bare board in question may have a perfectly viable explanation (might not be detected electrically, or may be undetectable by the specific methods employed), the 100 percent test specification implies that no explanation is acceptable. In many cases, application of this general sort of specification is combined with a customer-imposed limitation on test cost, which in turn requires cost-driven limits on the thoroughness of electrical testing performed by the board manufacturer. 36.3.2.2 Written Test Specification. It is the responsibility of both the bare board manufacturer and the bare board purchaser to agree upon a test specification that is specific in terms of test thresholds and method of testing while keeping in mind the appropriateness to the application for the bare board design. Some limits on test thresholds and test methodology may be due to equipment and capabilities of the manufacturer. It is the responsibility of the bare board manufacturer to educate the end user as to the implications of test specifications in thoroughness and cost of testing. A matrix of test options, fault detection capabilities, escape risks, and associated costs should be presented to the end user. It is the responsibility of the end user to work with the bare board manufacturer to develop specifications appropriate to the bare board being produced and to accept and plan for any testing compromises imposed by cost or specification limits. Areas that should be covered in the specification are:
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Data-driven testing, source of data, format, and integrity Test thresholds: maximum allowable for continuity verification Test thresholds: minimum allowable threshold and applied voltage for isolation verification Test fixture methods: single fixture with simultaneous access of all test points versus splitnet fixtures versus flying probe Test point optimization Board marking indicating electrical test satisfaction Resolution of discrepancies in process (contacts and procedures) Requirements for special test methods (time domain reflectometry [TDR], embedded passives, etc.) Resolution of escapes
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Such agreements make for good communication, clear understanding, happy customers, good reputation, and good business. 36.3.2.3 Using Available Standards. Industry standards or guideline documents such as IPC-9252, Guidelines and Requirements for Electrical Testing of Unpopulated Printed Boards (which replaces IPC-ET-652), are useful in developing agreed-upon written specifications for a particular product. Standards documents must be applied in consideration of the target application. An excessively rigorous specification would result in unacceptable test cost with little quality improvement.
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