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It is often impractical to perform hi-pot tests on finished products, except at limited numbers of test points. Equipment limitations are one factor, it being expensive to construct test equipment and fixtures capable of routing such high-voltage signals to a large number of test points. However, the product itself is often a poor target for such tests when evaluated in finished form. Modern products are often constructed with relatively fine spaces between conductors. On the surface layers of the board, the exposed component connection sites are usually too close together to withstand very high voltage stress without surface arcing. Such arcing is destructive to perfectly good product. The voltage at which such arcing will occur is a function of product geometry and atmospheric conditions. In consideration of this, the most common practical application of hi-pot testing is to inspect raw material for defects before etching. For example, a thin FR-4 core, clad with copper on both sides, might be evaluated by placing a high voltage across the opposing sides. Any crack or other defect in the insulating material may ionize, resulting in a large current flow. Thus the defective material is rejected before substantial value is added in subsequent processing.
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Embedded Component Tests Methods of embedding certain electronic components within the board have been developed. The most common example is the embedded or buried resistor. Such resistors are constructed by embedding a layer of partially conductive material within the board. By selectively removing (or adding) material, the resistance value is adjusted. Accuracy ranging from a few percent to many tens of percentage points is realized. Typical resistance values range from a few ohms to thousands of ohms. The most common use of this technology is within high-speed digital circuit designs to replace large numbers of termination resistors with a resistance of 200 ohms and lower. Measuring these values accurately is challenging, requiring good fixture construction and cleanliness. Another difficulty with testing of buried resistors is obtaining usable expected value data for the resistors. At the board shop, most resistors are specified as a shape and a type/thickness of resistance material rather than as a specific resistance value and tolerance. It may be necessary to analyze the circuit pattern and compute the net resistance of series and parallel combinations, arriving at a measurable final resistance value for the tester. Embedded capacitors may also be present. All boards exhibit capacitance between various traces, and especially between planes. The amount of capacitance is determined by the parallel surface area of the conductors, the thickness of the insulator between them, and the dielectric constant of the insulating material. Some product designs seek to maximize the desirable noise suppression benefits of capacitance between power and ground planes by making the intervening insulator thin. Some go further and use special insulating cores for these layers. This is the common form of buried capacitance. Most bare board test systems are not well suited to measuring capacitance values, particularly small ones. In some cases, no measurement is specified and it is only important that the test system tolerate the presence of the capacitance. When measurements are specified, it is usually true that few test points are involved. It may be expedient to use benchtop equipment.
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Time Domain Reflectometry Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a measurement method often used to verify the radio frequency (RF) impedance of a signal conductor on a circuit board. The RF impedance is important to the proper function of high-speed digital or RF applications. Examples include computer products, cellular telephones, radios, etc. The RF impedance of a signal path should not be confused with the DC resistance, as verified during the continuity test. It is common for
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