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FIGURE 38.5 Exclusion mask fixture.
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Pin Translator Fixtures for Universal Grid Systems Most boards manufactured today are tested on universal grids through the use of pin translator fixtures. These fixtures are rapidly designed and produced using available software systems, and the most expensive material components (the contact pins and plate spacers) are generally reuseable. These fixtures are also referred to as tilt-pin fixtures or grid fixtures. Grid fixtures and related software remain the fastest-evolving area in electrical testing. Particular fabrication details will not remain current for long. Therefore, this discussion employs current practice only as means of illustrating key issues such as density and registration. In a tilt-pin fixture, a rigid pin serves the dual roles of providing an electrical contact path from a grid test point to the product and translating the grid test-point location a small distance horizontally (in x- and y-coordinates) such that contact is made to the desired target on the product surface. Because the product targets are unlikely to be perfectly centered above grid test point locations, these pins are usually somewhat tilted from vertical. The amount of tilt or displacement varies according to the amount of x-y shift required. Several lightweight plates of plastic material support these pins. The individual hole locations in each plate are offset the amount required to achieve the desired pin tilt and spaced apart the required distances (see Fig. 38.6). These pins are variously referred to as tilt pins, translator pins, or fixture pins. To enable grid test points to be translated to exactly the correct target location on the product, it is important that each translator pin fall into the correct sequence of holes while the fixture is being assembled. If sufficient intermediate guide plates are employed, then the geometry of drilled holes can be so arranged that a virtual tunnel is created for each
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FIGURE 38.6
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Single-side multiplate tilt-pin translator fixture.
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translator pin. It becomes impossible for a pin to fall into an incorrect sequence of holes. More plates are required when the maximum degree of pin tilt is increased. Calculation of plate count, position, and drill hole locations is a key function of the data extraction and fixture software, whose process is described elsewhere in this chapter. 38.3.3.1 Test Pins for Pin Translator Fixtures. A wide variety of pins are available for use with different system types and for different applications (see Fig. 38.7). These vary in length, tip style, material, cost, and thickness. For a given angle of tilt, a longer pin is generally able to
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FIGURE 38.7 national.)
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Examples of translator pins. (Courtesy of Giese Inter-
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translate the test point a larger horizontal distance (larger pin displacement). Pins with enlarged heads of various shapes are useful for probing large-diameter holes. Aggressive shapes such as chisels provide the pin with enhanced abilities for cutting through product contaminants, but may be unsuited to closely spaced test applications. At present, the vast majority of pins are headless music wire pins with lengths ranging from 2.5 to 3.75 in. When probing a large-diameter through hole, common practice now is to probe the annular ring around the hole rather than pay the penalty for an odd-headed pin type. 38.3.3.2 Pin Displacement in Grid Fixtures. Pin displacement capability is one of the more significant performance measurements of a pin-fixture design combination. A larger displacement ability provides greater freedom in allocating test points, resulting in improved ability to fixture complex products on a test system of given density. With an arbitrary fixed rule of thumb of 10 maximum tilt, we can see from Fig. 38.8 that the longer the pin, the further the pin can be displaced from its on-grid location to its on-product target location. The maximum pin displacement that can actually be obtained is a function not only of pin length, but also of fixture design and the resultant maximum tilt angle that can be tolerated in the design. The fixture software usually seeks to arrange pins such that the maximum tilt in the fixture is minimized. This decreases the number of guide plates required, minimizes the number of different hole sizes required in the plates, and tends to reduce friction and binding. Nonetheless, a design that permits a maximum tilt capability ultimately provides the greatest flexibility in assigning test points and generally permits the solving of denser products on grids of a given density.
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