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40.3.3.3.3 Machine Vision Technology. A brief which is description is provided of one of the most critical advancements in component placement machine vision technology. The earliest pick-and-place function relied on mechanical stops (detents), switches and precision tooling to ensure that components were placed at the correct locations and with the proper alignment of I/Os to pads. As both board densities and component varieties increased, this technology was too slow to meet the requirements for higher production volumes and reduced placement defects. A critical incentive to move away from mechanical registration toward vision-based placement came from smaller I/Os on components. DCA/FC uses die bump pitches as small as 0.1 mm. Passive device sizes are commonly 0402 and 0201. Finepitch, quad flat pack (QFP) components have lead pitches as small as 0.3 mm. Each of these cases underscores the need for very high placement precision that can be realized only with machine vision technology. In addition, there has been a steady increase of odd-shaped devices that include inductors as well as LEDs, surface-mount connectors, etc.The result has been circuit boards with a greater mix of package types and sizes. Consequently, it is considerably less expensive and time-consuming to reprogram a computer-based, machine vision system to recognize these components than it is to retool a machine based on mechanical relays, detents, and such for component placement. Machine vision technology uses electronic cameras and optics together with specialized computer software to control the stepper motors responsible for positioning the component and the circuit board (site) relative to each other with the required accuracy and precision. To realize this objective, the placement machine must identify the component in the turret or gantry and establish the position of the turret or gantry. At the same time, the placement machine must know the position of the circuit board. The computer software ties these two requirements together by being programmed with the artwork (drawings) that identify the location of each component on the circuit board. Component recognition and circuit board recognition are discussed next, followed by comments regarding vision system limitations. Component recognition is typically obtained from the configuration of the I/Os. The I/O configuration includes two attributes: the I/O s shape, whether it is a beam lead, gull-wing
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FIGURE 40.22 Vision system images: (a) a flip chip component; (b) a printed circuit board fiducial. (Courtesy of Universal Instruments.)
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lead, or solder bump; and the I/O s layout, which may specify, for example, peripheral leads on two rather than four sides, or solder balls as full area-array packages rather than perimeter, area-array packages. Shown in Fig. 40.22a is the machine vision image of a flip-chip die with a perimeter array of solder bumps. The vision system determines the position of the package based upon the coordinates of the I/O locations, for example, two or four of the corner leads or solder bumps. Additional fiducials and/or nonsymmetries in the I/O layout (e.g., missing corner leads or bumps) are used to establish the rotational orientation of the component. Besides determining component type and orientation, vision systems have also been programmed to recognize damage to components. For example, fine-pitch quad flat packages are prone to bending of the very small leads, particularly at package corners, due to worn die sets or improper handling. In the case of area-array packages (BGAs, CSPs, and DCA die), there can be missing balls or solder bumps. The damaged component is rejected into the scrap bin and a new unit retrieved for placement. It should be noted that component recognition vision systems are designed primarily for part placement. Although defect recognition can be programmed into the software, increasing the degree of inspection function slows the placement process significantly. Therefore, the optimum approach is to allow the vision system to identify only gross component defects, targeting those defects that would occur between incoming inspection and the component placement step. Otherwise, full, incoming component inspection should be performed before the parts are loaded into the placement machine. Circuit board recognition requires that the machine (computer) be able to locate the circuit board site precisely for the component. First, the circuit board is secured on the conveyor by mechanical clamps, vacuum chuck, or other technique. The circuit board is then positioned under a camera that identifies the registration marks or fiducials on the surface (see Fig. 40.22b). This process is repeated for two to three other fiducials on the circuit board. At this point, the machine knows the location and orientation of the circuit board and thus, through the artwork design stored in the software, correlates the fiducial locations with the location of each component site. Subsequently, the software matches the coordinates of the circuit board site to those of the component positioned in the turret or gantry. Then the software instructs the stepper motors to position the component over that site and lower it on to the circuit board. Some applications, such as those using ceramic substrates that are prone to inconsistent degrees of shrinkage during fabrication (e.g., low-temperature, co-fired ceramic, or LTCC), may develop a discrepancy between the software design and the actual circuit board component positions (pads). In this case, the placement site of each component is determined directly using fiducials in close proximity to that component site. Although local fiducials may enhance component placement accuracy to some degree, especially when tolerance stack-up in the product causes it to deviate from the design files, this approach requires added processing time by the machine computer. The result is a decrease in placement speed that can develop into an appreciable process delay, particularly for large production volumes.
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