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FLUXES AND CLEANING
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Soldering3 is defined as the process of joining metallic surfaces with solder without melting the basis metal. For this joining to take place, the metal surfaces must be clean of contamination and oxidation. This cleaning action is performed by the flux,2 a chemically active compound that, when heated, removes minor surface oxidation, minimizes oxidation of the basis metal, and promotes the formation of an intermetallic layer between solder and basis metal. The soldering flux has several functions to perform. It must:
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React with or remove oxide and other contamination on the surface to be soldered Dissolve the metal salts formed during the reaction with the metal oxides Protect the surface from reoxidation before soldering occurs Provide a thermal blanket to spread the heat evenly during soldering Reduce the interfacial surface tension between the solder and the substrate in order to enhance wetting
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To perform these functions, soldering flux formulations contain the following types of ingredients: vehicle, solvent, activators, and other additives.
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Vehicle The vehicle is a solid or nonvolatile liquid that coats the surface to be soldered, dissolves the metal salts formed in the reaction of the activators with the surface metal oxides, and, ideally, provides a heat transfer medium between the solder and the components or PWB substrate. Rosin, resins, glycols, polyglycols, polyglycol surfactants, polyethers, and glycerine are among the major chemicals used. Rosin or resins are selected when more benign chemicals are required since their residues are less apt to cause reliability failures. Glycols, polyglycols, polyglycol surfactants, polyethers, and glycerine are used in water-soluble flux formulations because they provide excellent wetting of the board surface and dissolve the more active materials used in these formulation.
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Solvent The solvent serves to dissolve the vehicle, activators, and other additives. It evaporates during the preheat and soldering process. The solvent chosen depends upon its ability to dissolve the flux constituents for a given formulation. Alcohols, glycols, glycol esters, glycol ethers, and water are common solvents used.
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Activators Activators are present in the flux formulation to enhance the removal of metal oxide from the surfaces to be soldered. They may be reactive at room temperature, but their activity is enhanced as the temperature is raised during the preheat step of the soldering process. Among the common activators found in flux formulations for traditional soldering fluxes are amine hydrochlorides; dicarboxylic acids, such as adipic or succinic; and organic acids such as citric, malic, or abietic. Higher molecular weight activators are needed for lead-free soldering. Activators containing halide and amine give excellent soldering yields but may cause reliability problems if not properly removed in a well-controlled cleaning step. The halides may be present in either ionic or non-ionic form depending on the level of activation desired. Ionic activators provide, in general, a higher level of activation for a given halide content.
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Other Additives Soldering fluxes often contain small amounts of other ingredients that serve a specialized function. For example, a surfactant may be added to enhance the wetting properties. This constituent can also assist in the foaming characteristics required for foam flux application. Other additives may be included to lower the interfacial surface tension between the molten solder and the PWB as it exits the solder wave, decreasing the chance for solder bridges to form. Solder paste formulations require the presence of additives to provide good viscosity or flow characteristics, low slump during the preheat step, and good tack characteristics for holding the component in place until reflow occurs. Finally, cored-wire flux used for hand-soldering contains a plasticizer to harden the flux ingredients that are present in the core of the wire.
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Flux and Temperature Issues The flux becomes active as it is heated. In traditional flux chemistry for Sn/Pb solder, the assembly is preheated to around 100 to 125 C to remove the solvent and begin to activate the chemicals used to remove the metal oxide. After this plateau, the temperature is increased above the melting point of the solder (183 C) to 240 C for sufficient time to reflow the solder paste, and then the assembly is cooled, solidifying the solder and creating a metallurgical bond between the board metallization and the components. For lead-free soldering, the preheat plateau temperature is higher 150 to 200 C and the peak temperature is 245 to 260 C. This requires solvents that evaporate at a higher temperature and activators that become chemically active at a higher temperature. In addition, new activators are needed to address the new metallurgy on board surfaces and new lead-free solders containing Ag, Cu, and much higher levels of Sn. The decrease in pitch for area-array packages has resulted in a need for finer solder powders. This is driving a change in paste flux chemistry since the higher surface area of these fine powders results in increased oxide formation and decreased paste stability.
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