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relatively simple alloy system. The case presented will be based upon eutectic Sn-Pb solder (63 wt percent Sn and 37 percent Pb) in contact with solderable and non-solderable coatings on a basis metal. Primary soldering steps include:
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Intimate contact of the solder to materials being joined Slow application of heat to warm the parts to be soldered Oxide removal from the joining surfaces and solder metallurgies Application of heat sufficient to melt the solder Solder wetting to joining surfaces and intermetallic formation Quenching of the solder liquidus
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There are a few other materials that need to be covered for this discussion. The first is solder paste. This is a mixture of minute solder beads, flux, and other materials to give it specific rheological characteristics for dispensing and chemical agents for metal surface preparation. For surface-mount applications, it is typically stenciled onto PWB bonding pads, and then the electronic component is placed upon the solder paste deposit. The paste holds the component in place during the reflow process. The second is flux, which, as mentioned previously, is a key component of solder paste. The flux is a heat-activated chemical agent used to clean solderable surfaces. Both paste and flux will be covered in subsequent sections of this chapter.
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Intimate Contact of Solder to Surfaces to Be Joined This is the most basic of requirements. The solder has to be in contact with the materials to be joined. The contact area of the solder is not wholly important as long as the solder is in point contact with the surface to be soldered when it reaches liquidus. Surface tension effects and metallurgical wetting will complete the spreading of solder contact.
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Slow Heating of Boards and Parts to Be Soldered This is important for three main reasons. First, overly rapid heating can cause certain parts to experience thermal shock and subsequent failure as in cracking or may cause degradation of device electrical characteristics. Second, solder paste may spatter if heated too rapidly. Last, appropriate heating rate is crucial to good surface preparation through fluxing. Balance between time and temperature has to be determined so that the flux has enough time to accomplish its cleaning step and does not dry out prematurely or spatter. Prolonged heating cycles can also cause re-oxidation of flux cleaned parts. The following subsection covers fluxing more thoroughly.
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Oxide Removal from Bonding Surfaces and from Solder Most materials, when in equilibrium with our oxygen-rich environment, develop an oxide coating. Upon heating, solder surfaces as well as the bonding surfaces will more thoroughly oxidize in a normal air environment. If a silver-bearing surface is exposed to a sulfur-containing ambient (sulfur-tainted air), sulfidation occurs and that tarnish also inhibits soldering. Generally, the higher the storage temperature, the more oxidation is present unless oxide growth is self-limiting, as it is in some materials. The same holds true for soldering process temperature or process time. The longer and hotter, the more oxidation or tarnish is a problem if there is no flux or if the process renders the flux ineffective such as by overheating.
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SOLDERING FUNDAMENTALS
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Oxides and tarnishes act as a physical barrier preventing alloy formation between the solder and the metal to be soldered. In the case of gold (Au), known to remain largely oxide-free, there is insufficient oxidation to degrade soldering. But unless oxidation is removed from the solder itself, solder alloying with the Au may not be possible or will be incomplete. Note that in most soldering processes, the ambient can be altered to mitigate the detrimental effects of oxygen or other airborne contaminants. This will be discussed later. The most generally applied remedy for the effects of oxidation and tarnish as relates to the soldering process is the application of a chemical agent, flux. It is formulated to react with specific metallurgies and removes tarnish and oxidation. It also acts as a barrier preventing fluxed metal surfaces from re-oxidizing prior to and during the joining process. The word flux comes from the Latin fluxus, which means flow or flowing. Flux ensures that the solder, once molten, will flow over the surfaces to be bonded, unconstrained by oxide skins on the solder or the metals to be joined. Certain materials form oxides very rapidly, and some oxides are rather chemical-resistant. Nickel is one such element. Copper, like nickel, can also form resistant oxides and may necessitate the use of strong fluxing agents to achieve a bondable surface. Tin and silver oxides are easily attacked by even weak organic acids. Gold, which is known to remain oxide-free, can be applied as a thin, nonporous barrier over less noble, oxide-stripped metals such as nickel. During reflow, the gold dissolves quickly into the solder and the solder bonds to the underlying oxide-free nickel. Figure 44.1 shows the difference between a solder wettable surface and a flux-resistant oxide-coated surface.
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