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Weakly Fluxed Sn/Ag/Cu Solder on Ni and Cu surface
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Good wetting on Cu (a)
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No wetting on Ni (b)
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FIGURE 44.1 Comparison of soldering to copper (a) and nickel surface (b) with a weak organic solder flux. Note that in the case of the copper surface, the solder has wet and spread, characterized by a low wetting angle (the extent of wetting is indicated by the dashed outline). In the case of the nickel surface, the flux was ineffective in penetrating the oxide layer and solder was not able to wet to it. Instead, the solder beaded up on the surface of the nickel. (Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard.)
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Several types of fluxes are available for soldering, but only two broad categories are in widespread use. The first is aqueous-clean, also known as water-clean flux. This is generally composed of relatively strong organic acids and may be fortified with halogens to increase its chemical activity. Aqueous-clean formulations are meant to be thoroughly washed from the surface printed circuit assembly after soldering. If left on the board, corrosion products will form and cause corrosion and electrical failure. There are several electrical components that make aqueous-clean chemistry less attractive. These include dual inline package (DIP) switches, sealed switches (which are known to leak), high-density connectors, large area-array packages, micro-BGAs, and any other components with low headroom between the underside of the package and the surface of the PWB. It is for this reason, plus the opportunity to eliminate an expensive and vagarious process step (aqueous-cleaning) and associated equipment, that the vast majority of electronics manufacturers have widely embraced no-clean soldering fluxes.
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The second is rosin-based, with additives to make it chemically active to varying degrees. Removal requires solvent, but it can be formulated so that the residue is inert and can remain on the board. This is termed no-clean flux.
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Heating to Liquidus Once heated to melting, solder begins to form a metallurgical bond with contacted metals if wettable by dissolution and alloy formation.After the process starts, it progresses slowly, causing the solder to spread as it dissolves surfaces and alloys with it. The molten solder is drawn by surface tension to fill fine capillaries, and surface tension causes the solder to flow across wettable surfaces to some extent, forming webs of solder known as fillets. The solder fillet acts as a mechanical gusset imparting strength to the resultant solder joint.
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Solder Fillet Formation The solder fillet is an overt manifestation of surface tension and wetting. Fillets are readily apparent in Fig. 44.2, which shows the fillet as a web of solder extending from the PWB bonding pad to the lead of the component. Gull-wing leads rely on good heel fillets for solder joint strength. Toe fillets may be present or absent depending whether there is exposed copper or other oxidized or unsolderable exposed metal at the lead tip where the lead-frame was excised from its tooling strip. Toe fillets are of little importance, adding little strength to the soldered assembly. The bulk of the strength comes from the heel fillet and the solder wetted to the capillary between the bottom of the component lead and top of the bond pad. Similarly, side fillets may be present, but if the component lead width is on the order of the bond pad width, there may not be enough room to develop good side fillets. The wetting angle is also known as the dihedral angle. The lower the dihedral angle, the better the wetting. For an example of a PTH solder fillet, see Fig. 44.2. The fillet is a reasonable indicator of the degree of solder wetting and, therefore, of process goodness. It is generally believed that the higher solder fillet, the better the solder joint, but high fillets can be indicative of three problems: excessive overheating, which can result in brittle solder joints; excessive solder volume, and loss of component lead flexibility due to overly high fillet formation.
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FIGURE 44.2 Solder fillet formation: (a) Cross-section of an SMT solder joint; (b) a PTH solder joint in cross-section. In the case of the SMT solder joint, solder has wet to the pad and lead. The low wetting angles and good fillet formations are indications of good solder wetting. The PTH solder joint shows good fillet formation on the secondary side of the PWB. At the top, the primary side, the fillets are not as well formed, probably due to lower temperature at the top side of the board. (Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard.)
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