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45.6.6.2 Tin Pest. In addition to risk from whiskers, tin also poses another problem in some applications. At about 13 C, tin undergoes a crystalline structure transformation. The tetragonal crystal of white (b) tin converts to the cubic allotrope, gray (a) tin. Since gray tin has less density than white tin, there is an expansion of the tin lattice upon transformation and the tin starts to fall apart, turning to a gray dust. So tin should be avoided as a surface finish for low-temperature duty. The transformation is most profound at 40 C but will occur, albeit more slowly, at temperatures below the allotropic transition threshold. As in the case of tin whiskers, tin pest has been combated with the addition of a dopant metal such as bismuth, antimony, or lead. Lead, however, is no longer an option due to the RoHS directive and similar mandates.
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1. Abtew, M., and Selvaduray, G., Lead Free Solders for Surface Mount Applications, Chip Scale Review, September 1998, pp. 29 38. 2. Shuldt, G., and McKay, C., Amalgams for Electronics Interconnect, Proceedings of the Seventh Electronic Materials and Processing Congress, 1992, pp. 141 145. 3. Strauss, R, and Smernos, S., Low Temperature Soldering, Circuit World, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1984, pp. 23 28. 4. Marshall, J., Calderon, J., and Sees, J., Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of 43 43 14 Tin-Lead-Bismuth, Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, No. 9, October 1991, pp. 25 27. 5. NCMS Lead-Free Solder Project Final Report, August 1997. 6. Bath, J., Handwerker, C., and Bradley, E., Circuits Assembly, May 2000, p. 31. 7. Patanaik, S., and Raman, V., Deformation and Fracture of Bismuth-Tin Eutectic Solder, Proceedings of ASM International-Materials Development in Microelectronics Packaging Conference August 1991, pp. 251 256. 8. Mei, Z., and Morris, J. W., Characterization of Eutectic Sn-Bi Solder Joints, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol 21, No. 6, 1992, pp. 599 607. 9. White, C., and Evans, G., Choose the Right Alloy for Each Soldering Job, Research & Development, March 1986. 10. Allenby, B., et al., An Assessment of the Use of Lead in Electronic Assembly, Proceedings of Surface Mount International Conference, 1992, pp. 1 28. 11. Freer, J., and Morris, J., Microstructure and Creep of Eutectic Indium-Tin on Copper and Nickel Substrates, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 21, No. 6, 1992, pp.647 652. 12. Yost, F., Soldering to Gold Films, Gold Bulletin, No. 10, 1977, pp. 94 100. 13. Boggs, D., Anti-Tarnish: One Alternative to HASL, Electronic Packaging and Productions, August 1993, pp. 31 35. 14. Murray, J., Beyond Anti-Tarnish: An SMT Revolution, Printed Circuit Fabrication, February 1993, pp.32 34. 15. Korbelak, A., and Duva, R., 48th Annual Technical Proceedings of the American Electroplater s Society, 1961, p. 142. 16. Foster, F. G., Embrittlement of Solder by Gold from Plated Surfaces, Papers on Solders, American Society for Testing Materials, STP No. 319, 1962. 17. Foster, F. G., Gold Plated Solder Joints, Product Engineering, August 19, 1963, pp. 50 61. 18. Ebneter, S. D., The Effect of Gold Plating on Soldered Connections, NASA Technical Report, Accession Number: 65N36777; Document ID: 19650027176; Report Number: NASA-TM-X-53335, 1965. 19. Hedrig, G., Soldering of Gold Thin Films, Finomechanika (Precision Mechanics), Vol. 9, No. 4, 1970, pp. 108 118. 20. Foster, F. G., Embrittlement of Solder by Gold from Plated Surfaces, Papers on Solders, American Society for Testing Materials, STP No. 319, 1962.
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21. Thwaites, C. J., Soft Soldering, Gold Plating Technology, Electrochemical Publications, 1974, ch. 19, pp. 225 245. 22. Karnowsky, M., Rosenweig, A., Trans. Met. Soc. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs, 242, 2257 1958. 23. Fox, A., et al., The Effect of Gold-Tin Intermetallic Compound on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Copper Alloy C72700 and C17200 Wires, IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. CHMT-9, No. 3, September 1986, pp. 272 278. 24. Prince, A., The Au-Pb-Sn Ternary System, Journal of Less-Common Metals, 12, pp. 107 116, 1967. 25. Shewmon, P., Diffusion in Solids, McGraw-Hill, 1963, pp. 115 136. 26. Seitz, F., On the Porosity Observed by the Kirkendall Effect, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 1, 1953, p. 355. 27. Zakel, E., and Reichl, H., Au-Sn Bonding Metallurgy TAB Contacts and Its Influence on the Kirkendall Effect in Ternary Cu-Au-Sn System, Proceedings of the 42nd Electronic Components & Technology Conference, May 1992, pp. 360 371. 28. Haimovich, J., Intermetallic Compound Growth in Tin and Tin-Lead Platings, NWC TP 6896, EMPF TP 0003. 29. Moltz, E., Use and Handling of Semiconductor Packages with ENIG Pad Finishes, Texas Instruments Application Report SPRAA55, August 2004. 30. Bryant, K., Investigating Voids, Circuits Assembly, June 2004, pp. 18 20. 31. Yau, Y-H, et al., The Properties of Immersion Silver Coating for Printed Wiring Boards, IPC/APEX, Anaheim, 2005. 32. Aspandiar, R., Voids in Solder Joints, IPC/CCA PCB Assembly and Test Symposium, May, 2005.
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