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The natural heat of the soldering process, combined with the oxygen in normal factory air, can inhibit soldering by creating oxides that compete with the action of fluxes. To avoid this problem, manufacturers can use inert or reactive gases for the local atmosphere at the solder site.
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Nitrogen Soldering Nitrogen (N2) as a cover gas for soldering processes has been in use for many years and is considered commonplace in today s electronic assembly.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Its role in reducing oxidation during the joining process ensures best solder wetting. Soldering in a nitrogen atmosphere has become increasingly important in recent years, driven by the rise of no-clean fluxes and solder pastes and the upsurge in the use of area-array devices such as BGAs, CCGAs, CBGAs, CSPs in reflow, and PGAs, along with complex, finer-pitch connectors in wave soldering. Area-array devices have one thing in common: their solder joints are hidden by the package body and it is impossible to repair an isolated open solder joint beneath the package. Nitrogen provides added insurance that best solder wetting will result if soldering conditions and materials are process-appropriate. The most recent increase in N2-assisted soldering comes with the onset of large-scale leadfree soldering implementation around the world. Higher process temperature translates to higher oxidation rates during soldering. Also, as previously discussed, certain solder alloys are more prone to oxidation than conventional Sn-Pb solders. 46.8.1.1 Use of N2 for Increased Fluxing Effectiveness. The soldering environment is an important variable. Obviously the most common and least expensive soldering ambient is air, but many board assemblers introduce nitrogen to their reflow ovens, wave soldering
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machines, or repair equipment. N2 is particularly effective when working with no-clean solder pastes or fluxes and it will gain increased importance with the conversion to Pb-free soldering. Most all of the Pb-free solders that are in widespread use for the electronics industry are slower to wet and require greater reflow temperatures than the old Sn/Pb standard. The introduction of nitrogen limits further oxidation of the metals to be joined, the solder, and even the flux. This in turn increases fluxing effectiveness and enhances solder wetting. Also, several of the Pb-free soldering alloys are prone to oxidation, such as solders containing Bi, Zn, or In. Reduced dross (oxides on top of liquid solder) production rates are generally seen when nitrogen is used to limit the oxygen content of the wave soldering atmosphere. Numerous citations have indicated that soldering can be effectively augmented by the use of an inert environment. 46.8.1.2 Use of N2 for Lighter, More Transparent No-Clean Residue. The yellow or brown coloration of some no-clean residues is absent when boards are soldered in a nitrogen atmosphere. Clearer no-clean residues make for easier inspection of solder joints on finished PCAs. It should be noted that the use of nitrogen even keeps the PWB laminate coloration looking the same as before it went through the soldering process. 46.8.1.3 Nitrogen Negatives. There are some negative points that must be considered when working with N2. 46.8.1.3.1 Cost. There are some negative points that must be considered when working with N2. First and foremost, nitrogen is an added expense for manufacturing. For factory usage, it is impractical and dangerous to store large numbers of gaseous cylinders or liquid dewars onsite; for this reason, bulk storage is needed. This comes with facility capital costs including: cement pad for outside storage tank and vaporizers to convert stored liquid N2 into usable room temperature gas. Pressure regulation is needed as well as piping and further pressure regulation for delivery of nitrogen to the soldering equipment. Then there is the incremental cost of nitrogen usage. 46.8.1.3.2 Tombstoning. It has been found that even modest flows of N2 are beneficial. However, too much nitrogen during reflow leads to passive component tombstoning (see Fig. 46.6).
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FIGURE 46.6 Passive component exhibiting tombstoning. Differential heating and surface tension effects have drawn the lightweight chip away from the surface of the PWB during reflow. On solidification, the component is frozen in the raised position and an open circuit results.
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