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In addition to the profile board, there are numerous useful diagnostic tools commercially available for dynamically measuring the wave height and wave contact area and assessing resident time in the wave for a given conveyor speed. 47.4.7 Dross Hot solder is prone to rapid oxidation at the air-liquid solder interface. Although the wave is in constant motion, the solder is actually flowing beneath a thin, stationary, plastic film of solder oxides. In Sn/Pb, Sn-Cu, or Sn-Ag-Cu systems, the skin is composed chiefly of tin oxide but also contains oxidized traces of other alloy constituents or contaminants. The oxide skin on the surface of the wave and atop the solder in the reservoir is called dross. The dross has a beneficial aspect in that it helps to limit oxidation of the recirculating solder in the solder pot, but it also interferes with solder-wave dynamics. When adjusted properly, the board meets the crest of the wave and disrupts the oxide skin. In doing so, the fluxed components and board are immersed in the flowing, oxide-free molten solder. If all steps are carried out properly, the solder alloys with the fluxed, oxide-free component leads, component pads, and PTH barrels. Upon exiting the wave solder machine, the assembly cools below the solder liquidus temperature and solder joints are formed. The more the system is used to solder boards, the faster the contamination and dross build-up. 47.4.7.1
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Impact of Dross.
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Dross is of concern from three points of view:
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Dross s impact on the process Dross is solder lost from the manufacturing process. Economics of dross In high-volume manufacturing, the amount of solder lost to dross can mean hundreds of dollars of lost solder per week per machine. Of course, the actual cost depends on machine use, solder alloy, and quantity of boards soldered. However, the dross can be returned to some solder founders for recycling. Sn drift Excessive dross on the surface of the solder can disrupt normal wave dynamics. In the case of Sn/Pb solder, Sn oxidizes more easily than Pb. The solder can become Sn depleted over the long term. This is known as Sn drift. The same is true of Sn-based Pb-free solder alloys, but since some alloys are nearly all Sn (SAC305 with 96.5 percent Sn by weight), this effect will be less dramatic. However, other Pb-free alloy perturbations such as dissolution of Cu become much more important. For example, in the case of the eutectic Sn-Cu alloy, the copper content is only 0.7 wt percent. Small changes in the copper content by means of copper dissolution of copper pads on the board can have a dramatic effect on the melting temperature of the solder.
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47.4.7.1.1 Dross-Related Process Defects. Dross can generally change the dynamics at the wave-land-lead interface, discouraging adequate pull-back of the solder and encouraging defects. Molten solder droplets can become entrapped in the dross as a result of wave turbulence and mixing of the oxides with the molten solder. Once oxidized, they are unable to rejoin solder in the reservoir. As the dross passes through a PTH pin field intended for soldering, it is raked by the pins; the pins acting as a strainer. The dross containing liquid solder can hang up on the pins and cause shorting (an effect known as drossy shorts). This drossthickened layer can also block the solder wave from effectively contacting PWB land and component lead, and opens (skips) result. 47.4.7.1.2 Taming Dross. Various schemes have been devised to control dross, such as co-mixing the pumped solder with a mineral oil, which floats to the surface, blanketing the solder from the atmosphere. Liquid reducing agents can be added to the solder as well as fluxes. In the long term, none of these has proven popular. The most popular method of dealing with dross is manually scooping dross from the surface of the solder reservoir with a ladle. Machines that vacuum dross are also available. Inerting is effective in reducing dross formation and ensuring best fluxing from no-clean or other weakly activated fluxes. Nitrogen as a cover gas has become the most effective method
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