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of dross management. R. Iman et al.4 have explored the use of formic acid in gaseous form as an additive to the nitrogen atmosphere for the soldering process. The fundamentals of this process were demonstrated by H. H. Hartmann,5, 6 who had shown formic acid to be an effective gaseous fluxing agent for soldering. Dross forms when the solder is exposed to the atmosphere, so limiting atmospheric contact limits dross production. As mentioned previously, nitrogen blanketing of the solder pot and the wave will help in this regard.Another simple but effective method is to turn off the wave pump(s) when the solder wave is not in use.
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47.4.8 Metal Contaminants Metal contaminants can also affect wave soldering. These stem from two sources: contaminants from the bar solder used to charge the solder pot, and, to a greater degree, from the materials joined during the soldering process. As the hot, circulating wave washes over component leads and PCB through-hole lands and pads, materials are dissolved into the solder. Even if leads and pads are solder-plated or solder-dipped, there is the opportunity for adulteration of the solder in the reservoir, dependent on coating composition, thickness, and underlying basis metals and impurities within surface finishes as well as resident time in the wave and wave temperature. Copper, gold, silver, additional tin or lead, and intermetallic compound precipitates are all common contaminants derived from the slight dissolution of component lead and pad or coatings thereon during soldering. See Chap. 46 for discussion of these metals in the solder process. Solder reservoir contamination can have significant process impact, eventually altering melting range of a solder, injecting particulates into solder joints, and altering wetting characteristics. This may lead to an increase in shorts or opens or even result in solder-joint embrittlement. The composition of the wave reservoir can be assayed by a testing service to determine its impurity content by scooping a small amount of solder and checking its solidus and liquidus points (melting range) against a pure standard. This method is less accurate than chemical analysis for contamination assessment and will not be adequate for detecting the presence of some impurities such as intermetallic precipitates that may not affect the solder alloy composition. Excessively high temperatures in the solder reservoir and low speeds through the wave should be avoided to limit dissolution of component leads, PWB pads, and PTH barrel materials. Note that the solder wave is maintained at fairly high temperatures, generally 245 to 265 C, depending on the solder alloy, but board exposure is short (2 to 10 sec.). Compare this to oven reflow, where time above liquidus is typically 30 to 90 sec. As in oven reflow, thermal shock in wave soldering can lead to component cracking or degradation problems, so the preheating rate should be tempered to match component vendor recommendations sometimes to as little as 2 C per sec. Bar solder impurities such as aluminum, gold, cadmium, copper, and zinc can increase surface tension of the solder and make the process more prone to bridging. D. Bernier7 reviews some of these contaminant effects and describes empirically derived impurity limits.
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47.4.9 Hygiene Airborne tin, lead oxide fumes, and other metal particulates are unhealthy to breathe. Risks associated with lead oxide intake are well documented, but inhalation of any particulate should be considered potentially hazardous. The health risks associated with working with Pb-free alloys are not as well known as those of the Sn-Pb system. With any alloy, precautions should be taken, especially during wave-solder system maintenance procedures, to preclude particulate inhalation. Donning a personal particulate mask and washable or disposable outer garments (contamination suit) is recommended. Proper hygienic venting of the work area, not only during maintenance procedures but for normal soldering operation, is necessary.
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