barcode scanner programming asp.net SOLDERING TECHNIQUES in Software

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Design for Wave Soldering In most factories, defect levels at the wave step are higher than those for the oven mass reflow process. The defects are related to poor process setup, poor process control, inadequate PWB design, or any combination of the three. Although wave soldering has been around for a long time, it is still not very well understood, due mainly to varying machine configurations and number of process variables. Many wave designs are available from the various wave-solder machine manufacturers.There are wave machines that provide multiple smaller, turbulent wave(s), which are best for leadless components such as surface-mount passive devices (resistors, capacitors, etc.). Smoother-flowing waves are recommended for components with leads and through holes as well as coarse-pitch surface-mount devices. Wave dynamics are dictated by process values as well as the materials in contact with the wave. As the solder wets to the circuit board materials, solder wetting contact angle and solder viscosity imposes wave peel-off characteristics (see Fig. 47.23).
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FIGURE 47.23 PWB passing over a solder wave. Note the tendency to pull a web of solder from the wave as the board passes over. The solder-wettable lead-pad combinations become one with the wave as the board passes through it. Good soldering relies on flux-aided wetting and the ability of the solder web to break cleanly from the wave when surface tension forces are exceeded as the board moves away from the wave. (Courtesy of Alpha Metals, Inc).
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The hot-air knife, as previously described, is sometimes useful in removing unwanted solder bridges from between component leads while the solder is still molten. This is especially useful in connectors and PGAs with interstitially arrayed pin fields (see Fig. 47.24). As the wave moves through this frustrated interstitial pin field, areas in which fluid flow stagnates may occur and opens or insufficiently soldered pins may result. In addition, the interstitial pin field may not drain solder well enough in other areas, causing solder bridge formation. Numerous wave designs are aimed at improving the soldering yields of these large packages, but there is no clear choice in wave style for all applications. In designing circuit boards for the wave-soldering process, it is important to anticipate the flow of the wave over the bottom surface of the board. Placing tall components in front of short component fields should be avoided and component spacing should be maximized; otherwise, solder from the wave may be blocked from washing over the targeted joining area.The taller component may shadow the flow of the wave, causing areas of flow eddying or stagnation in the vicinity of shorter components behind it. Also, via placement should be as far away from the leads as is practical to avoid the aforementioned problems of re-reflow.8
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FIGURE 47.24 Circuit board segments with (a) an orthogonally arrayed connector PTH pattern and (b) an interstitially arrayed connector PTH pattern.
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Component spacing from the edge of the board is dictated by wave flows and the surrounding structure. F. W. Kear s review9 of the thermal aspects of through-hole solder-joint formation offers a glimpse of the physical phenomenon of the wave-soldering process. 47.4.11 Wave-Solder Pallets The pallet, selective soldering pallet, or shield is a masking device meant to shield certain secondary (bottomside) components or features of the PWB during the wave soldering process. On its topside are a recessed nest for the PWB and retention features to hold the PWB within the nest. There are cutouts that expose those areas to be soldered to the flux and the standing solder wave (see Figs. 47.25 and 47.26).
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FIGURE 47.25 (a) A wave-solder pallet: (1) a PWB with PTH connectors; (2) PTH axially leaded resistors; (3) BGAs. (b) A pallet with cutouts for PTH components. It also shields BGA via pattern and other components and features on the bottom side of the PWB. (c) A PWB nested in a pallet. Dashed lines indicate areas in the pallet that were cut out to expose the bottom side of the board to the wave. (d) A masked board passing over the solder wave, showing open and shielded areas.
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