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FIGURE 47.31 In-line single-vapor heating system schematic. (Reprinted with permission from Electronic Packaging and Production, November 1982, p. 63, Fig. 1).
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the maximum heating ramp rate must be commensurate with component manufacturer recommendations. A slow preheat is required to keep components from cracking. Plastic package popcorning is pronounced with this method of reflow. Besides legislated environmental issues, there are health risks associated with vapor-phase reflow soldering. With the continued recycled use of HFCs, toxic materials such as hydrofluoric acid and perfluorisobutylene are formed. These must be neutralized and their by-products must be disposed of properly. When massive, densely populated boards are introduced to the vapor reflow oven, vapor collapse can occur a condensation rate that outpaces that of vaporization. The result is that the internal atmosphere of the oven thins dramatically to the point that it cannot sustain adequate reflow. Vapor-phase machines that rely on immersion heaters are prone to this phenomenon. More recent machines include massive heating element housings that provide sufficient thermal inertia to preclude this problem. Increased incidence of tombstoning, solder ball formation, and component displacement has been noted in this method of reflow. The condensing vapor transfers heat directly to the best thermal conductors, component leads, and pads. Excessive solder wicking can occur, transporting solder from between the lead and pad up the lead, where it is not needed. This can cause solder bridges proximal to the component body. Excess solder on the component lead decreases the lead s flexural compliance, making it less reliable. Furthermore, if the solder is wicked up the lead, the lead-pad interface will be solder starved, resulting in an inferior solder joint. Additional information can be gleaned from older reference books and other authoritative publications, including previous editions of this book.11, 12
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The laser has proven to be a versatile tool in many industries. For circuit board assembly, it can be used for marking, single-point soldering, or rework. Lasers can accommodate bonding of the finest or coarsest peripherally leaded surface-mount packages, and its performance and applicability are independent of device population density on the board, the thickness of the printed circuit board, or the presence or absence of package heat sinks. It can be used with most any component lead or PWB pad surface finish and any solder, including Pb-free alloys. When laser soldering is implemented properly, high soldering yields and exceptional bond characteristics are possible13. Its use is usually relegated to low-volume soldering applications.
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For successful laser soldering, it is necessary to use tooling to hold the component or, more specifically, the component leads down to circuit board pads. Laser-based reflow is used as a rework tool, and laser systems are packaged expressly for this purpose and sold commercially. Boards are preheated to about 100 C within the system by means of a bottomside resistance heater. A diffuse laser beam is then scanned around the package by a rapidly moving galvanometer. The impinging energy heats surface-mount leads or an entire BGA to the point of solder reflow for package removal. This system has the advantage of such localized heating that only the package targeted for rework reaches reflow temperature. Everything around it stays close to the system preheat temperature with almost no thermal spill-over from the laser. This is a distinct advantage over the hot-air repair method, where the hot gas stream used for package heating and reflow can inadvertently melt solder joints on adjacent components or components on the opposite side of the board. Laser soldering requires no hot zones to profile or maintain, does not induce substrate warpage, and requires no heated bonding head that can degrade or vary with usage. Components can be spaced exceptionally close to one another closer than currently permitted for other techniques, especially when one considers rework.
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Lasers The word laser derives from the acronym for light amplification via stimulated emission of radiation. 47.7.1.1 Laser Subsystems. All lasers are comprised of three main subassemblies: power supply, cavity/oscillator, and beam delivery optics (see Fig. 47.32 and Table 47.2). Although there are many configurations and additional accessories that may enhance a laser s output, only the basics are covered here.
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