barcode scanner programming asp.net FIGURE 47.32 Comparison of the two most popular lasers used for soldering: (a) Nd:YAG; (b) CO2. in Software

Creator Denso QR Bar Code in Software FIGURE 47.32 Comparison of the two most popular lasers used for soldering: (a) Nd:YAG; (b) CO2.

FIGURE 47.32 Comparison of the two most popular lasers used for soldering: (a) Nd:YAG; (b) CO2.
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47.7.1.1.1 Cavity/Oscillator. Lasing, which is the laser photon generation and amplification process, occurs in the cavity, also known as the oscillator. The cavity contains the lasing medium, a material that is both the photon originator and amplifier of the laser beam. Photons, electrons, or other high-energy sources are used to raise certain atoms or ions in the lasing medium to a temporarily stable electronic transition, a meta-stable state. When the medium is returned to its stable, ground state, energy is released in the form of heat and fluoresced photons. These photons are, for the most part, reflected at the ends of the cavity and focused back through the lasing medium by the cavity optics, generating more photons with each additional pass.
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SOLDERING TECHNIQUES
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TABLE 47.2 Laser Systems and Subsystems System A B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 C C1 C2 D Subsystems Name Excitation power supply Cavity Nd:YAG crystal (lasing medium) Flash lamp (excitation source for Nd:YAG) Retroreflector Partial reflector (laser beam exit optic) Electrodes (excitation source for CO2 laser) Quartz tube Delivery optics Mirror Final objective Lasing gas CO2, N2, He
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There are always two types of reflectors that bound a laser s cavity. The rear or retroreflector focuses and returns nearly 100 percent of the emission wavelength photons back through the cavity, further stimulating the lasing medium to emit photons. The front reflector is a leaky mirror lens, one that is reflective but somewhat transmissive also. It reflects most of the emission beam back into the oscillator for further stimulation of the lasing medium while allowing a small fraction of the laser beam to pass through it.The component of the beam that is transmitted by the front partial reflector is the working laser beam. It is monochromatic by virtue of the lasing medium, which limits photon emission to a set of discrete wavelengths, or laser lines, which are characteristic of the medium material, and by virtue of the optical coatings on the front reflector, which allow only one laser line through it. 49.7.1.1.2 Delivery Optics. Delivery optics, placed in the path of the laser beam, direct it to the work piece. In the case of laser soldering, the work piece is the circuit board or, more specifically, the leads, pads, or lead-pad combinations. The beam can be easily steered by means of wavelength-appropriate mirrors and can be focused to the required spot size via a final objective lens to accomplish soldering. The delivery optics can be held fixed and the circuit board moved beneath or, conversely, the optics can be moved to direct the beam as needed. Either can be done with great precision sufficient for any PCB soldering task. Moving the beam and moving the board both have their own advantages. Moving the optics in any direction is very simple and will not interfere with any PCB or surface-mount device fixturing requirements. Also, moving the circuit board may cause misalignment of component leads and circuit board pads. Fixed optics are more stable and require fewer adjustments, although, if engineered properly, moving optic beam delivery systems can be exceptionally stable and accurate. Fiber-optics are in vogue for laser beam delivery, but it should be noted that, when dealing with high-energy-density laser beams as required for soldering, fibers are subject to damage if not precisely maintained. Fiber delivery has the advantage of allowing for easier steering of a beam in a complex machine that may preclude the use of orthogonal mirror and lens beam steering. 47.7.1.2 Beam Characteristics. There are many key differences between a laser beam and other light sources. (The term light is generally reserved for those wavelengths that are part of the visible spectrum and detectable by the human eye, but for the purposes of this discussion, light and photonic emission will be used interchangeably.) Laser beams have several distinctive characteristics. They are generally set to emit monochromatic radiation, which is also coherent radiation. Coherence here relates to the synchronized propagation of photons; that is, all waves of the emission radiation are in phase with one another.
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