barcode scanner programming asp.net SOLDERING TECHNIQUES in Software

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47.7.1.6 Nd:YAG Lasers. The neodymium drifted yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, commonly referred to as the YAG laser, has a solid-state medium. It relies on lamp excitation of a cut and polished yttrium-aluminum-garnet crystal that has been doped with neodymium to stimulate this solid-state lasing medium. The photons released by the solidstate lasing medium are used to stimulate more lasing medium-derived photons. Otherwise, the same lasing principles apply to the operation of that laser as to the gaseous CO2 laser. Nonlinear optical materials can be used with the YAG laser to double the output frequency, halving the operating wavelength. This can be advantageous when working with highly reflective materials such as gold and copper, which are more optically absorptive at lower wavelengths. This, however, detracts from laser performance by decreasing available operating power, adding complexity to the system as well as increasing maintenance requirements. 47.7.1.7 Spot Size. First, the minimum practical spot size is relatively large. The theoretical diffraction-limited spot size of a focused beam is directly proportional to the beam wavelength and lens diameter, as described in Eq. 47.1. S = fl/D where S= f= = D= diffraction limited spot size focal length of the lens wavelength of the laser lens diameter (47.1)
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Thus, for a lens of 25 mm diameter and 100 mm focal length, in conjunction with CO2 or YAG lasers, the spot sizes shown in Table 47.3 are theoretically possible.
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TABLE 47.3 Theoretical Spot Size versus Laser Type Emission frequency (mm) 10.6 1.06 0.532 Theoretical spot size (mm) 42 4.2 2.1
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Laser type Co2 Nd:YAG Nd:YAG (Frequency doubled)
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Imperfections in the lens or beam shape and other factors prevent practical achievement of these minimal spot sizes. Generally, the attainable focused beam diameter on the factory floor is about two to three times larger than the ideally calculated spot size. Note that for an Nd:YAG laser, the spot size is at least 10 times smaller than that of the CO2 laser, providing a fine, high-energy-density spot for soldering. 47.7.1.8 Lasing Operating Modes. Both YAG and CO2 lasers can be operated in a variety of modes, each of which can be used to advantage in soldering:
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Continuous wave (CW) operation CW is a constant emission analogous to the continuous output of a light bulb that is powered by a direct current source. Pulsed laser output Furthering the light bulb analogy, this mode is akin to a bulb operated by an alternating current or pulsating power supply, although more like a strobe with intense bursts. The pulsing can be attained through a variety of methods, including switched power supply, capacitive discharge, or mechanical shutter, or by means of an optically manipulated shutter, as by acoustooptic, electrooptic, or magnetooptic methods.
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Laser-Soldering Fundamentals There are relatively few variables associated with the laser in its application to soldering. This is one of the advantages for laser processing. Beam wavelength, irradiation time, and beam power are important to the process, as are the properties of the materials being joined. Reflectivity, thermal conductivity, and laser damage threshold must be understood before soldering is attempted. The wavelength will be fixed by the laser of choice, and the shorter the wavelength, the smaller the theoretical spot size, as discussed. Generally, the reflectivity of a metal is lower at shorter wavelengths, thus a metal is more easily heated by an Nd:YAG laser than with a CO2 laser. The converse is true for many polymeric materials, which are more absorptive at longer wavelengths and therefore more prone to damage with increasing wavelength. Many polymeric materials are also absorptive at the UV end of the spectrum. A carbon dioxide laser beam is more likely to impart damage to a circuit board than the beam of an Nd:YAG laser, but either laser can inflict damage if the energy density is high enough. In fact, either laser can easily cut through a component lead or drill through a circuit board if parameters are not adjusted properly. The reflectivity of metals varies widely with composition and surface condition. Every metal can be heated with a laser as long as the energy density of the beam and dwell time are sufficient for heating. This is also the case with laser-irradiated component leads, board pads, and solder during the laser bonding process. Measurements of the reflectivity of Sn-Pb solder show that a eutectic alloy can be as high as 74 percent at 10.6 (m or as low as 21 percent at 1.06 mm. Therefore, in the case of the CO2 laser at 10.6mm on a Sn or Sn-Pb-plated lead and solder-coated pad, much energy will have to be directed at the metals to start the absorption process, since so little laser energy is absorbed by the solder and converted to heat; the rest of the energy is lost to reflection.The reflected or multiply reflected beam may impinge on adjacent components and damage package bodies or even the circuit board itself, causing charring. Therefore, Nd:YAG is preferable for circuit board soldering.
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