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Thermal and mechanical stress on resin-to-glass bond. Volatilized components can also stress this bond.
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Thermal and mechanical stress on resin-to-copper bond.
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Cleanliness, moisture resistance, and choice of proper coupling agent for resin adhesion are more important. Copper nodularization and roughness, treatments for improved adhesion, i.e. coupling agents.
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Brist, Gary, Hall, Stephen, Clauser, Sidney, and Liang,Tao, Non-Classical Conductor Losses Due to Copper Foil Roughness and Treatment, ECWC 10/IPC/APEX Conference, February 2005.
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Definition of Epoxy One of the most common versions of epoxy resin for printed circuit applications is manufactured from reacting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. This reaction is shown in Fig. 7.1. The bromination of the bisphenol-A provides flame retardancy to the finished resin system.
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O CH2 CH CH2Cl + HO CH3 C CH3 Bisphenol A OH
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O H2C CHCH2 O
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CH3 C CH3
OH O CH2 CHCH2 n Difunctional Epoxy O
CH3 C CH3 O CH2CH
O CH2
FIGURE 7.1 Reaction to form difunctional epoxy resin.
BASE MATERIAL COMPONENTS
Figure 7.2 shows the structure of tetrabromobisphenol-A, Br Br CH3 or TBBPA. Figure 7.3 shows a reaction used to manufacture brominated epoxy resins. Brominated epoxy OH C resins such as this are the most common component HO used to incorporate flame retardancy to the finished CH3 Br Br product, although non-halogen-based flame retardants can also be used, and are discussed in Sec. 7.4.2.3. The FIGURE 7.2 Tetrabromobisphenol-A triangular rings on either end of the difunctional epoxy (TBBPA). are the epoxide functional groups. In subsequent resin polymerization, these groups react and result in the curing of the resin system. The OH groups present on the epoxy molecule also react with the epoxide groups, providing cross-linking among the epoxy molecules (see Fig. 7.4).
Difunctional epoxy resin O CH2 CH CH2 O CH3 C CH3 O O CH2 CH CH2 +
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) Br HO Br CH3 C CH3 Br OH Br
Brominate epoxy resin O CH2 CH CH2 Br O Br CH3 C CH3 Br O CH2 CHOH CH2 Br Br O Br n CH3 C CH3 Br Br O
O CH2 CH CH2
FIGURE 7.3
Brominated difunctional epoxy resin.
Difunctional Epoxies The epoxy resins shown in Figs. 7.1 and 7.3 are difunctional epoxies. The molecular weight of the epoxy can be varied based on the number of repeating groups shown in the center of the molecule. On either end of the molecule, you see the epoxide functional groups. The name difunctional epoxy is derived from the fact that there are two epoxide groups, one on either
OH O CH2 CH CH2 O
O + H2C CH CH2 O
O CH2 CH OH CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 O
FIGURE 7.4
Cross-linking of OH and epoxide functional groups.
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
end of the molecule. The molecular weight, the curing agents used to react the resin and other factors will affect the finished properties of the resin system, including Tg and Td. The Tg is the temperature at which the resin turns from a rigid or glassy state to a softer, more deformable state. The Tg is important because it affects the thermal and physical properties of the base material and finished circuit board, especially thermal expansion properties. The Td is the decomposition temperature and will influence thermal reliability of the printed circuit.These properties are discussed in more detail in Chaps. 6 and 8, and again in Chap. 10 as they relate to compatibility with lead-free assembly processes. Difunctional epoxies can have a range of Tg s, but are typically below 120 C. These epoxies are sometimes used in relatively unsophisticated products such as simple double-sided printed circuits, but are more commonly blended with other epoxies in higher performance systems.
Tetrafunctional and Multifunctional Epoxies The use of epoxy compounds with more than two epoxide functional groups per molecule results in greater cross-linking when the resin is cured. Among other things, this can result in higher Tg levels. Resin systems with these types of epoxies can exhibit improved thermal and physical properties. However, the curing chemistry will also have an impact on these properties, and often the higher-Tg materials can be harder and more brittle, requiring process adjustments in the printed circuit manufacturing process. Common commercially available laminate materials based on epoxy resin systems can be segmented into a few Tg ranges, 125 to 145 C, 150 to 165 C, and greater than 170 C.There are epoxy systems above190 C, but they are less common.These resin systems are normally blends of difunctional, tetrafunctional, and multifunctional epoxy resins. Figures 7.5 and 7.6 are examples of tetrafunctional and multifunctional epoxies. A cost-performance trade-off exists among the commonly used epoxy resin systems. In general, resin systems offering higher levels of Tg and Td will cost more. In addition, the highTg systems can incur increased circuit manufacturing costs, due primarily to increased multilayer lamination cycle times and decreases in drilling productivity. However, the improvement in performance is often required to meet design and reliability requirements. 11 outlines a procedure for selecting cost-effective materials for various printed circuit designs.
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