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FIGURE 53.4
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Sample charts to display data from automated inspection.
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data also helps discover the cause of process variation. Eliminating the sources of process variation reduces the process defect rate, thus creating savings in rework costs and increasing product reliability. As shown in Figure 53.4, various charts to display available data from the automated inspection can be made available for corrective action and process control.
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Other chapters of this book have covered the lead-free process, but this section covers the lead-free process from an inspection point of view. In general, the lead-free process is a less forgiving one because the wetting forces for lead-free alloys are not as strong as for tin-lead, which means that defect levels are likely to increase and the need for inspection for process control and defect containment will increase. The figures illustrate wetting issues of the leadfree process. Figures 53.5 and 53.6 show x-ray close-ups of two gull-wing joints on the same type of quad flat pack (QFP) device. A key issue for manufacturers is the lead-free alloy melting point of 217 C, higher than the 183 C for lead alloys. The higher melting point will have significant impact on manufacturing processes and potentially on component reliability.
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During the transition to a lead-free process, it is Side fillets are the important to understand all of the materials in use, as same size mixing lead-free and traditional tin-lead components will create many issues during the transition to a leadfree process. Ideally, all lead-free components and materials will be utilized, but this is not always possible. Note good Figure 53.5 is an x-ray image of a tin-lead example. A heel and toe good heel formation and toe formation can be seen. The formation side fillets are approximately the same, indicating that the component pins are centered on the pad. Note also that very little solder appears on the pad below the toe Sn/Pb in the photo; all solder is around the component pins. Figure 53.6 is an x-ray image of a lead-free example and reveals a couple of wetting issues. Solder is over the full pad.The pad sizes on both boards (Figs. 53.5 and 53.6) are approximately the same. Also, note that the side fillet Sn/Pb to the right is stronger than to the left, indicating that the FIGURE 53.5 An x-ray image of a component is misaligned on the pad. The toe fillet is tin-lead example. insignificant. The heel fillet has formed correctly; a void can be seen in one of them. A void is also visible on the same pin further down on the pad. Side fillets are different During the transition to a lead-free process, expect to sizes since part is see many of these types of defects. Defect levels are misaligned expected to increase. The following types of defects are typically noticeable during lead-free transitions: opens, bridges, misalignment, tombstones, and voids. Because of the higher reflow temperatures, component defects are also expected to increase. Large variations in defect levVoid els should be expected. For some board types, small increases or no increase will be seen, whereas for others a Note poor significant (more than 10 times) increase in DPMO valtoe formation ues will be seen. These defect levels will vary from one manufacturing site to another. Inspection and especially automated inspection will be a significant help in addressing the tighter process window acceptable for a lead-free process. For process control, pre-reflow inspection will provide the biggest Void benefit. The obvious benefit is that solder paste inspecLead-free tion (SPI) and pre-reflow automated optical inspection (AOI) systems provide early defect and potential defect FIGURE 53.6 An x-ray image of a detection and prevention specifically by identifying the lead-free example. defects that are expected to increase with the use of lead-free solder (opens, bridges, and so on, as previously mentioned in this chapter). An additional benefit and perhaps the most valuable one is the insight that the process engineer can gain by evaluating the results from SPI and AOI systems as lead-free materials are adopted. By integrating SPI and AOI systems in the manufacturing process as they move to lead-free materials, and then using the data for process optimization, the manufacturer can eliminate most of the process difficulties that a lead-free process creates. This implementation will in turn allow users to bring lead-free lines up to speed more quickly and efficiently, saving on labor, materials waste, and so on. After reflow, the main objective is to identify defects so that repair action can take place. For this manual visual inspection,AOI post-reflow, or automated x-ray inspection, can be used. Even with good process control, defect levels are likely to increase, especially for higher-complexity boards. If defect levels are higher, then a good inspection strategy becomes more valuable.
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