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V1 V2 +V V3 V4
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(not to scale, dimensions exaggerated for clarity)
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FIGURE 56.6 Turbini. 6 Hole-to-hole test vehicle used by Ready and
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and two different bias voltages (150 V and 200 V), they were able to show the relation is L4/V2 (see Eq. 56.5): L4 E MTTF = c exp a + d 2 kT V
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In addition, they provided evidence for different CAF morphologies when different flux constituents were used. Coupons that were aged without flux exhibited only a copper salt at the fiber and epoxy interface, whereas those processed with water-soluble flux showed the presence of a copper-containing material within the polymer matrix. Ready and Turbini also identified the chemical nature of CAF as atacamite: Cu2Cl(OH)3. An examination of the Pourbaix diagram (see Fig. 56.7) for the copper-chlorine-water system reveals that copper hydroxy chloride is insoluble below pH4 and thus this salt will grow from the anode, which is acidic. They also explained that the high conductivity of this salt, which causes catastrophic failure when it bridges to the cathode, suggests that it conducts through electrons and holes, that is, it has semiconductor properties. CAF filaments are typically no larger than 50 mm in diameter and 0.2 mm in length.
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ELECTROCHEMICAL MIGRATION AND FORMATION OF CAF
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CAF is a conductive copper-containing salt created by electrochemical migration. Thus, it is important to review the electrochemical migration process in more detail. It begins with a substrate material, which serves as an insulator, preventing current flow between adjacent traces. This resistance to current flow is termed insulation resistance.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
2.8 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 En (v) 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2
4 6 +++
4 8 9 30
Cu2O3 hydr
CuO2 b
Cu 3 Cu(OH)2. CuCl2 CuCl
73 53
32 11
6 4 2
55 51 26 5 16
0 2 4 6
82 23
HCuO2
CuO-2
Cu2 O
14 12
8 27
25 4
(a) 1.6 2
FIGURE 56.7
6 pH
Pourbaix diagram of the copper-chlorine-water system.
Ohm s law (Eq. 56.6) describes the linear relationship between voltage, current, and resistance: V = IR where V = voltage drop I = current in amps R = resistance in ohms (56.6)
Resistance is not an intrinsic property of a material. Rather, it depends on some geometric factors as well as the intrinsic resistivity of the substrate. For surface resistance, use Eq. 56.7: d R = A where r = resistivity of the material d = the separation between the conductors traces A = the cross-sectional area (56.7)
Conductivity (s) is the inverse of resistivity:
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+ OH
Br H+
Pb+2 i A=dxi Cu+2 Cl Sn+n
Anode d
Cathode
FIGURE 56.8 Electrochemical migration showing the movement of positive ions toward the cathode and negative ions toward the anode.
Both resistivity and conductivity can be affected by processing chemicals. Electrochemical migration (see Fig. 56.8) is the movement of an ionic species under the influence of a DC voltage. Electrochemical corrosion increases as circuit spacing decreases. This is due to the increase in the electric field, which is inversely proportional to the spacing between the conductors (see Eq. 56.8). E= where V d (56.8)
E = the electric field V = the voltage d = the spacing between the conductors
Moisture is essential to electrochemical migration. In the presence of moisture, metal ions form at the anode and migrate toward the cathode, where they plate out to form dendrites. When a dendrite bridges the gap, a short occurs that may burn out quickly due to the high current within the fragile dendrite. In the case of CAF formation, copper ions are created electrochemically at the anode. Residual chloride ions from the reaction of epichlorhydrin with Bisphenol A (forming a precursor to the epoxy) exist at low levels in the FR-4 substrate. These react with the copper ions and water to produce the CAF Cu2Cl(OH)3 which grows from the anode since it is insoluble in acid. The favored path for this is at the epoxy-glass interface.
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Ionic contaminants, which dissolve in the moisture on the surface, increase the conductance (lower the resistance) of the insulating layer between the anode and cathode. Their presence enhances electrochemical migration. How much the migration is enhanced depends on several factors: the solubility of the ion, the mobility of the ion, the effect of pH on solubility, the reactivity of the ion, temperature, and relative humidity. The solubility of the ion and its mobility in water are important because conductivity depends on both of these factors (see Eq. 56.9).
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