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Ni = the number of charge carriers of a particular type (e.g., Na+ cations, or Cl anions) qi = the charge of the carrier mi = the mobility of the charge carrier
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The mobility of a given ion is dependent on temperature and its diffusion coefficient per Eq. 56.10: q ion = Dion kT where k = Boltzmann s constant T = degrees Kelvin Dion = Diffusion constant for a particular ion. (56.10)
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Tables of ionic conductance in aqueous solution as well as diffusion constants can be found in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.7 Most contaminants from processing do not exist in isolation from one another. Rather, there may be several ionic species present, some of which will interact to create new ionic species. Solubility of the contaminant salts also depends on the pH.Water ionizes under a bias voltage, creating an acidic medium at the anode and a basic medium at the cathode, as shown in the following reactions: Anode: Cathode: H2O = 1/2O2 + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O + 2e = 2OH + H2 or O2 + H2O + 4e = 4(OH)
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Temperature is another important factor to consider. An increase in temperature increases ion solubility, mobility, and reactivity. In summary, several factors affect electrochemical migration. These include the nature of substrate and metallization, the presence of contaminants, the voltage gradient, and the presence of sufficient moisture. This last element is critical, for without sufficient monolayers of water on the surface, ion mobility is impossible.
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FACTORS THAT AFFECT CAF FORMATION
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A number of factors affect CAF formation. These include substrate material, conductor configuration, processing, voltage and spacing, soldering flux, and humidity in the storage and use environment.
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Substrate Material Lando et al.4 compared FR-4 with several substrates: G-10 (a non-fire-retardant epoxy/ woven glass material), polyimide/woven glass (PI), triazine/woven glass, epoxy/woven kevlar, and finally polyester/woven and chopped glass. Similarly, B. Rudra et al.8 performed an extensive experimental comparison among the substrates: bismaleimide triazine (BT), cyanate esters (CE), and FR-4. In addition, Ready9 compared the CAF susceptibilities of FR-4 with CEM-3 (a substrate similar to G-10 except with chopped glass) and MC-2 (a blended polyester and epoxy matrix with woven glass face sheets and a chopped glass core). Of all materials tested by these investigators, the BT material proved to be most resistant to CAF formation (due to its low moisture absorption characteristics). Conversely, the MC-2 substrate proved to have the least resistance to CAF formation. The susceptibility of the materials follows the trend below: MC-2 > Epoxy/Kevlar > FR-4 ~ PI > G-10 > CEM-3 > CE > BT To ensure immunity to CAF, the laminate of preference is BT. In recent years, laminate suppliers have developed other CAF-resistant substrate materials. However, there is a cost penalty to consider. 56.4.1.1 Conductor Configuration. Lando et al.4 evaluated several different conductor configurations:
Line-to-line (L-L) Hole-to-line (H-L) Hole-to-hole (H-H)
This evaluation showed that susceptibility to CAF is H-H > H-L > L-L. Lahti et al.10 demonstrated that the smaller the spacing between conductors and the greater the proximity of the glass fibers to the copper conductors, the faster the growth of CAF. They noted that for a multilayer board, failure initiated in the most deeply buried layers. 56.4.2 Processing The epoxy-glass bond can be weakened by the drilling or depaneling processes in PWB manufacture. It will also be weakened during the soldering process due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the epoxy and glass. Data from Turbini et al.11 demonstrated that the increased soldering temperature associated with lead-free alloys significantly increases the incidence of CAF. Another processing factor is the diffusion of polyglycols from water-soluble flux into the PWB substrate that occurs during soldering. Since the diffusion rate is temperature-dependent, the length of time that the board is above the glass transition temperature will affect the amount of polyglycol absorbed into the epoxy, and that will in turn affect its electrical properties. J. A. Jachim et al.15 reported on water-soluble flux-treated test coupons that were prepared using two different thermal profiles. Those which experienced the higher thermal profile exhibited a Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) level that was an order of magnitude lower than those processed under less aggressive thermal conditions. 56.4.3 Voltage and Spacing Two other critical factors used in determining CAF susceptibility are voltage and spacing. The CAF growth is fueled by the electric field (V/d), and failure occurs more quickly with smaller spacing between conductors.
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