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COMPONENT-TO-PWB RELIABILITY: ESTIMATING SOLDER JOINT RELIABILITY AND THE IMPACT OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS
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59.1 INTRODUCTION
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In Chap. 58, the critical design variables that could impact the reliability and manufacturability of printed circuit assemblies (PCAs) have been outlined. The use of various assessment tools to quantify the expected life of PCAs is an important aspect of design for reliability. Data collected from standard tests can be used with acceleration transforms and finite element analysis to assess the expected service life of any interconnect. Experimental data play a crucial role in reliability assessments. Poor data or data obtained under incorrect experimental conditions can lead to grossly inaccurate reliability assessments. Garbage in equals garbage out is nowhere more true than in interconnect reliability assessments. The history and experience gained over years of use of tin-lead solders are no longer applicable to leadfree assemblies because lead-free solders behave differently under the same end-use conditions and relatively little data are available on the characteristics of lead-free solders. The formulas for predicting the field life of solder joint interconnects would have to be revisited and validated with extensive experimental data. Moreover, the introduction of lead-free materials is accompanied by new failure mechanisms that are yet to be fully understood and mapped into field-life prediction models. 59.1.1 Experimental Tests The different levels of solder joint interconnects in a typical PCA are illustrated in Fig. 59.1. A myriad of experimental tools have been developed to assess solder joint reliability rapidly. These include:
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1st Level Interconnect
Silicon
2nd Level Interconnect
Package Substrate Module Substrate
3rd Level Interconnect
FIGURE 59.1 First-, second-, and third-level interconnects defined, employing a flip-chip assembly as an example. The first-level interconnect is the primary connection between the silicon die and the package substrate. In this example, the connection is created by the solder bumps between the die and the package. The second-level interconnect in this example is the next level of connection between the package substrate and the module substrate. The third-level interconnect in this example is created when the solder balls on the bottom side of the module substrate are attached via surface-mount technology (SMT) to the printed wiring board (PWB).
Thermal cycling Thermal shock Air-to-air cycling Liquid-to-liquid cycling Mechanical bending Mechanical deflection Hyper-Peltier cooled thermal cycling
It is crucial for the PWB designer to understand the techniques employed, the applicability of the results, and the quality of the data when assessing the reliability of any package that will be placed on his or her PWB. Although rapid assessments are desirable, their benefit diminishes if the failure modes are fictitious and not indicative of expected field failures. 59.1.2 Impact of Lead-Free Materials on Reliability The conversion to lead-free materials requires a reassessment of these experimental tools and field-life assessment techniques. New materials and failure modes need to be adequately captured in numerical and experimental test methods to model correctly the sort of thermal and mechanical conditions that an interconnect would be exposed to in field operating conditions. The following key aspects of quantitative reliability assessment are discussed at length in this chapter:
Thermomechanical reliability: Temperature cycling tests used to determine the thermomechanical reliability of tin-lead and lead-free assemblies The role of Weibull plots in estimating the failure distribution and characteristic life of solder joints from temperature cycling data The acceleration transforms that can be used to estimate the field life of tin-lead and leadfree solder joints based on the results of temperature cycling tests The role of power and minicycles in predicting the field life of solder joints
COMPONENT-TO-PWB RELIABILITY
Examples illustrating the use of acceleration transforms to compare the fatigue life of packages tested in different thermal cycling and end-use conditions Mechanical reliability: Bend test methodologies and test methods that could be used to perform a relative comparison between different package types and surface finishes Sample experimental data showing the comparative difference between different surface finishes and solder metallurgies Shock test methodologies that could be used to perform a relative comparison between different packages and end-use conditions Ball adhesion test methodologies: high-speed shear, pull testing, and impact testing
In addition, this chapter outlines the role of numerical analysis techniques in analyzing and improving the reliability of solder joint interconnects. Detailed procedures illustrating the use of finite element analysis (FEA)1 in estimating the thermomechanical fatigue life of solder joint interconnects and monotonic bend testing are also discussed.
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