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Board Strain vs Joint Strain - 2.35mm Thick PCB 4500 4250 4000 3750 3500 3250 3000 2750 Board Strain 2500 2250 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000 22500 25000 27500 30000 32500 Joint Strain
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FIGURE 59.22 Solder joint-to-PWB strain relationship for three gauge locations. The results indicate that the gradient at locations 1 and 3 are relatively close. The gradient at location 2 is quite low. This indicates that the PWB strain at location 2 is least sensitive to variations in critical solder joint strain. The nomenclature for the strain gauge locations is given in Fig. 59.21.
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Below Joint (Loc 1) Package Center (Loc 2) 11.25 mm From Joint (Loc 3)
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mounted on a board of a certain thickness. FEA was used to determine the joint-to-board strain ratio for each case, which in turn can be used to determine which strain gauge location is most or least sensitive to board flexure. The results of the simulation are shown in Fig. 59.22. The results indicate that the highest sensitivity to solder joint strain is obtained at locations 1 and 3 (see Fig. 59.21). Location 2 reflects the global bending of the entire assembly. These results are in line with measured experimental data. The absolute strain value and the change in strain at location 2 is least sensitive to the critical solder joint failure strain. 59.4.2.2 Effect of Package Pad Size on Joint-to-Board Strain. FEA can also been used to estimate the effect of changes in solder joint pad size on the joint-to-board strain ratio.Two different package pad sizes were used: 0.53 mm, solder mask defined, (pad design 1) and 0.4 mm, solder mask defined, (pad design 2) while the PCB pad design was kept constant (0.5 mm, non-solder mask defined) The results in terms of the joint-to-board strain at location 3 are shown in Fig. 59.23. The results in Fig. 59.23 indicate that pad size change could have a significant impact on the strain in critical solder joints. As a result, care should be taken in using data generated with one pad size to qualify or accept the bending strength with another pad size, unless the absolute strain-to-failure value is much higher than the required strength.
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Board Strain vs Joint Strain - 2.35mm PCB 4250 4000 3750 3500 3250 3000 2750 Board Strain 2500 2250 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000 22500 25000 27500 30000 32500 Joint Strain
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FIGURE 59.23 Two different solder joint pad sizes analyzed. The results indicate that for the same PWB strain, the solder joint strain is ~18 percent higher for pad design 2 as compared to pad design 1.
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Pad Design 1 - (Loc 3) Pad Design 2 - (Loc 3)
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1. Zienkiewicz, O. C., Taylor, R. L., and Zhu, J. Z., The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, 6th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. 2. PC-9701, Performance Test Methods and Qualification Requirements for Surface Mount Solder Attachments, IPC, January 2002. 3. IPC-9701A, Performance Test Methods and Qualification Requirements for Surface Mount Solder Attachments, IPC, February 2006. 4. Clech, J-P., Noctor, D. M., Manock, J. C., Lynott, G. W., and Bader, F. E., Surface Mount Assembly Failure Statistics and Failure Free Time, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1994, pp. 487 497. 5. Weibull, W., A Statistical Distribution Function of Wide Applicability, Journal of Applied Mechanics, September 1951, pp. 293 297. 6. Reliasoft Corporation, Weibull Probability Density Function, 1996 2006, available online at http://www.weibull.com/LifeDataWeb/weibull_probability_density_function. htm.
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7. Idem, What Are Confidence Bounds 1996 2006, available online at http://www. weibull.com/LifeDataWeb/what_are_confidence_intervals_or_bounds_.htm. 8. Lau, J. H. (ed.), Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronics Packaging, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. 9. Tummala, R. R., Rymaszewski, E. J.,and Klopfenstein, A. G. (eds.), Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Chapman and Hall, 1997. 10. Lau, J. H. (ed.), Ball Grid Array Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1995. 11. Darveaux, R., Effect of Simulation Methodology on Solder Joint Crack Growth Correlation, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2000, pp. 1048 1058. 12. Anand, L., Constitutive Equations for Hot-Working of Metals, International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 1, 1985, pp. 213 231. 13. Bradley, Edwin (Motorola), Handwerker, Carol (NIST), and Sohn, John E., NEMI Report: A Single Lead-Free Alloy is Recommended, SMT, January 2003, cover story. 14. Pei, M., and Qu, J., Constitutive Modeling of Lead-Free Solders, Proceedings of IPACK 2005, 73411, 2005. 15. Rodgers, Bryan, Flood, Ben, Punch, Jeff, and Waldron, Finbarr, Determination of the Anand Viscoplasticity Model Constants for SnAgCu, Proceedings of IPACK 2005, 73352, 2005. 16. Ng, Hun Shen, Tee, Tong Yan, Goh, Kim Yong, Luan, Jing-en, Reinikainen, Tommi, Hussa, Esa, and Kujala, Arni, Absolute and Relative Fatigue Life Prediction Methodology for Virtual Qualification and Design Enhancement of Lead-Free BGA, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2005, pp. 1282 1291. 17. Clech, Jean-Paul, An Extension of the Omega Method to Primary and Tertiary Creep of Lead-Free Solders, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2005, pp. 1261 1271. 18. Shangguan, Dongkai, Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability, ASM International, July 2006, pp. 185 198. 19. Weise, S., and Muesel, E. Characterization of Lead-Free Solders in Flip Chip Joints, Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 125, December 2003, pp. 531 538. 20. Weise, S., Muesel, E., and Wolter, K. J., Microstructural Dependence of Constitutive Properties of SnAg and SnAgCu Solders, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2003, pp. 197 206. 21. Pang, J. H. L., Xiong, B. S., and Low, T. H., Creep and Fatigue Characterization of Lead-Free 95.5Sn3.8Ag-0.7Cu, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2004, pp. 1333 1337. 22. NIST, Materials for Microelectronics, , March 2004, available online at http://www. metallurgy.nist.gov/solder/. 23. Pan, N., Henshall, G. A., Billaut, F., Dai, S., Strum, M. J., Lewis, R., Benedetto, E., and Rayner, J., An Acceleration Model for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joint Reliability under Various Thermal Cycle Conditions, SMTA International, 2005, pp. 876 883. 24. Clech, Jean-Paul, Acceleration Factors and Thermal Cycling Test Efficiency for Lead-Free Sn-Ag-Cu Assemblies, SMTA International, 2005. 25. Bartelo, J., Thermomechanical Fatigue Behavior of Selected Lead-Free Solders, IPC SMEMA Council, APEX, San Diego, January 14 18, 2001, LF2-2. 26. Sahasrabudhe, S., Monroe, E., Tandon, S., and Patel, M., Understanding the Effect of Dwell Time on Fatigue Life of Packages Using Thermal Shock and Intrinsic Material Behavior, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2003, pp. 898 904. 27. Setty, Kaushik, Subbarayan, Ganesh, and Nguyen, Luu, Powercycling Reliability, Failure Analysis and Acceleration Factors of Pb-Free Solder Joints, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2005, pp. 907 915. 28. Bath, Jasbir, Sethuraman, Sundar, Zhou, Xiang, Willie, Dennis, Hyland, Kim, Newman, Keith, Hu, Livia, Love, Dave, Reynolds, Heidi, Kochi, Ken, Chiang, Diana, Chin, Vicki, Teng, Sue, Ahmed, Mudasir, Henshall, Greg, Schroeder, Valeska, Nguyen, Quang, Maheswari, Abhay, Lee, M. J., Clech, Jean-Paul, Cannis, Jeff, Lau, John, and Gibson, Chris, Reliability Evaluation of Lead-Free SnAgCu PBGA676 Components Using Tin-Lead and Lead-Free SnAgCu Solder Paste, SMTA International, 2005, pp. 891 901.
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