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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
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Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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PROCESS WASTE MINIMIZATION AND TREATMENT*
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60.1 INTRODUCTION
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In the past, manufacturers of printed circuit boards have relied on end-of-pipe treatment and disposal for hazardous wastes generated in the fabrication process. These technologies are no longer optimal strategies for managing waste for two reasons. First, the potential liabilities involved with the handling and disposal of waste have increased and will continue to increase, and second, waste disposal costs have gone up significantly due to restrictions placed on land disposal.As a result, the industry is faced with the challenge of finding alternative methods for managing hazardous waste. This chapter presents a brief overview of some of the alternatives available to address this challenge, as well as a summary of some of the issues involved in implementation.
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60.2 REGULATORY COMPLIANCE
Fabricators of printed circuit boards today are faced with a complex set of environmental requirements. In the United States there are three basic environmental statutes impacting the fabrication and assembly of printed circuit boards.
Clean Water Act Clean Air Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
* This chapter is reprinted from the 4th edition. The basic issues, regulations, and processes are considered accurately stated and relevant to the 6th edition. For specific actions, however, it is recommended that waste treatment engineering and legal professionals be consulted to ensure that latest government expectations are understood at all levels of jurisdiction and that appropriate technology is applied to the resolution of specific issues.
Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
Clean Water Act The goals of the Clean Water Act are to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation s waters. To accomplish these goals, discharges of industrial wastewater are subject to pretreatment requirements of federal, state, or municipal regulations. Industrial waste discharges are typically directed to a sewage treatment plant. Most sewage treatment plants use bacteria to biodegrade the organic matter present in the waste stream. Toxic materials such as copper, nickel, and lead from industrial discharges can pose a problem in two ways. These materials end up in the sludge from the sewage treatment process and can lead to disposal problems. Secondly, in high concentrations they can kill the bacteria in the treatment process, resulting in significant pollution of the receiving water. As a result, fabricators of printed circuit boards are required to pretreat their wastewater to specified levels prior to discharge to the sanitary sewer. The stringency of the requirements is ultimately determined by the use of the receiving water, as even minute amounts of toxics have been shown to have a negative impact on the aquatic environment. While the federal Clean Water Act specifies minimum pretreatment standards for fabricators of printed circuit boards, in most cases, state and local requirements may be more stringent. See Table 60.1 for an example of pretreatment requirements.
TABLE 60.1 Typical Pretreatment Requirements Parameter pH Copper Nickel Chromium Silver Cadmium Zinc Lead Mercury Aluminum Selenium Iron Manganese Tin Cyanide Phenol Limit, mg/L 6.5 9.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.05 0.07 0.5 0.2 0.05 1.0 0.2 2.0 2.0 5.0 0.01 0.05
Clean Air Act The Clean Air Act established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to achieve two goals: 1. Improve air quality in areas which fail to meet the standards. 2. Prevent significant deterioration of the air quality in clean air areas. The states are responsible for achieving these standards by setting emission limitations and establishing timetables for compliance by sources. Printed circuit fabrication and assembly involves several processes that have an impact on air quality. Drilling, routing, sawing, and sanding create dust or airborne particulates. The plating process creates acid fumes and the etching process can generate ammonia if an ammoniacal etchant is used. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and lead particulates from the assembly process can pose a potential air pollution problem as well.
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