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The technologies available for control of air pollutants include the following: 1. Electrostatic precipitators, baghouses (a type of dust collector with fabric bags mounted on frames), and cyclone separators are available to control airborne particulates. 2. Wet scrubbers containing a packed bed to provide surface area and water sprays are utilized for removing acid fumes. Addition of an acidic feed to the scrubbing liquid allows for the removal of ammonia. Addition of a caustic feed improves the scrubbing efficiency for other materials. Wet scrubbers are often used to prevent entrance of fumes back into the building from fresh air intakes. 3. Activated carbon filtration systems are utilized for removing chlorinated solvents and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These can be regenerated on- or off-site.
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Resource Conservation and Recovery Act The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) goals are to protect human health and the environment by reducing or eliminating the generation of hazardous waste. To achieve this, the regulation mandates a system for managing hazardous wastes from cradle to grave. Anyone who generates, stores, treats, transports, or disposes of hazardous waste is subject to this regulation. The specific definitions of hazardous waste are spelled out in the federal statutes (40CFR Parts 260-280). Typically, however, the states have more stringent definitions. The states are responsible for the implementation and enforcement of RCRA. Wastes captured under this regulation in a printed circuit board fabrication facility include aqueous solutions with metals, acid or alkaline solutions with metals, sludges containing metals, etc. As a result, fabricators must comply with the following requirements. 1. Obtain an EPA identification number and apply for permits to generate, treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste as appropriate. 2. Use appropriate containers for storage and disposal and approved manifests and labels for shipping. 3. Comply with technical requirements for on-site treatment of hazardous waste, including tank integrity standards, labeling, and secondary containment. 4. Keep records as appropriate for reporting to regulatory agencies. A critical part of the regulation is to reduce and, where possible, eliminate the generation of hazardous waste.Waste minimization was specifically mandated in the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This has had an enormous impact on the way waste is handled by printed circuit board facilities. Prevention of pollution has become the overriding goal in design with recycle and reuse technologies implemented only where pollution prevention is not feasible for technical and/or economic reasons. Chemical treatment of wastes should be utilized only where no other options exist.
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60.3 MAJOR SOURCES AND AMOUNTS OF WASTEWATER IN A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FABRICATION FACILITY
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60.3.1 Major Sources of Waste The following table indicates the major operations in the production of printed circuit boards with the waste streams they generate.
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Source 1. Cleaning and surface preparation 2. Electroless plating and deposition 3. Pattern printing and masking 4. Electroplating 5. Etching 6. Assembly
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Waste stream Spent acid/alkaline baths Waste rinse waters Spent electroless copper bath Waste rinse water Spent stripper and developer solutions Waste rinse waters Spent plating bath Waste rinse waters Spent etchant Waste rinse water Aqueous and semiaqueous wastewaters
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Composition Metals, acids, alkalis Acids, palladium, complexed metals, chelating agents, formaldehyde Vinyl polymers, chlorinated solvents, organic solvents, alkalis Metals, cyanide, sulfate Ammonia, chromium, copper, iron, acids Lead, organics
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Typical Amounts of Waste Materials It is important to evaluate the waste generated in printed circuit board manufacturing in terms of the relative amounts of copper wasted from different processes in order to prioritize efforts at waste minimization.A waste audit should be performed to determine the types and amounts of waste generated. Figures 60.1 and 60.2 present two comparisons of copper-bearing wastes. The data presented are from two different printed circuit board fabrication facilities. In Fig. 60.1, approximately 93 percent of the total amount of copper discharged was from the innerlayer and outerlayer etching process. The amount of copper discharged from the microetch baths (using sodium persulfate) was approximately the same as the copper contained in the rinses following acid copper and the microetch baths. That exact relationship is not always valid for every printed circuit board factory. Figure 60.2 presents the results of an environmental audit at another printed circuit board facility in grams per hour of waste copper, excluding the large amounts of waste from I/L and O/L etching. The results presented in Fig. 60.2 closely resemble a common PCB factory. The facility used to prepare Fig. 60.2 produced up to 1500 completed multilayer panels (18 in 24 in) per 20-h day of production.
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