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TABLE 61.7
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Polyimide Maximum operating temperature Standard thickness Soldering Wire bonding Color Moisture absorption Dimensional stability Flexibility Cost >200 C 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 125 mm Applicable Possible Brown High Acceptable High High
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a long time. Both of these materials have a good property balance, and they are still the major substrates in traditional flexible circuits. 61.5.2.1 Properties of Polyimide Films. Table 61.8 shows major properties of typical polyimide films, Kapton H and Apical AV. These have good mechanical properties and provide excellent performance as base substrate films and coverlay films in dynamic flexing applications. They have flame-retardant characteristics, and it is not difficult to achieve Underwriters Laboratories (UL) flame class 94-V-0 or 94-VTM-0. The largest disadvantage of polyimide film is its higher cost compared to other common plastic films such as PET. There are several barriers to using traditional polyimide films as the major substrate materials in HDI flexible circuits. Dimensional stability is the largest issue. Both Kapton H film and Apical AV by Kaneka have coefficients of thermal efficiency (CTEs) higher than 30 ppm, which is not acceptable for the large-volume production processing of HDI flexible circuits. Relatively high moisture absorption is another major barrier to using these films as the base
TABLE 61.8 Properties of Traditional Polyimide Films and New Polyimide Films Kapton H Manufacturer Thickness (mm) Tensile strength (kg/mm2) Elongation (%) Tensile modulus (kg/mm2) CTE (ppm) (100 200 C) CHE (ppm) (50 C, 35 75% RH) Heat (%) shrinkage (200 C, 2 h) Water absorption (23 C, 24 h) Alkaline resistance Chemical etching MD TD MD TD MD TD MD TD MD TD MD TD DuPont 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 125 25.2 22.3 85 83 336.1 321.4 27 31 15 16 0.18 0.20 2.8 17.4 Possible Apical AV Kaneka 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 125 25.0 27.0 119 114 305.9 312.2 35 31 16 15 0.08 0.03 2.9 25.9 Possible Kapton E DuPont 12.5, 25, 50, 75 28.3 25.4 16 32 785.5 622.4 3 12 5 8 0.03 0.02 2.2 5.5 Possible Apical NP Kaneka 12.5, 25, 50, 75 30.0 32.0 82 73 407.9 428.3 17 13 13 12 0.06 0.02 2.5 22.9 Possible Apical HP Kaneka 12.5, 25, 50, 75 28.6 29.0 40 38 654.0 661.0 12 11 8 6 0.06 0.02 1.1 4.2 Possible Upilex S Ube 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 125 39.4 40.2 22 21 897.3 912.1 14 15 9 10 0.07 0.10 1.9
~0 Difficult
FLEXIBLE CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS
material of the flexible circuits. High moisture levels in the films cause a lot of supplemental problems, mostly in increased temperature processes. Higher-performance polyimide films are required as the substrate material of HDI flexible circuits. The primary materials used in industry to optimize cost and performance have been 50 micron thick polyimide film, used for industrial and avionics applications, and 25 micron thick films, used for consumer applications. However, since late 1990s, films as thin as 12.5 micron have been specified to reduce thickness and increase flexibility. 61.5.2.2 High-Performance Polyimide Film. Various manufacturers have made several aggressive measures to commercialize high-performance polyimide films. Upilex S by Ube Industry has excellent chemical stability, and it is a barrier for chemical processes such as adhesion with the other materials or chemical etching. Strong chemicals, such as hidrasine, are required to do the chemical etching. Upilex-S could be the major material as the substrate of TAB, which requires very high dimensional stability at high heat resistance. Newly developed polyimide films such as Kapton E, EN, and Kaneka s Apical NP and FP have higher dimensional stability and lower moisture absorption rates. It is possible to etch these films using mild alkaline chemistry. Basic properties of the materials are summarized in Table 61.8. Hot-melt-type (thermoplastic) polyimide films have been developed as high-heat-resistant adhesive materials. Mitsui Chemical s TPI, DuPont s Kapton KJ, Ube s Upicel, and Kaneka s Pixeo are typical examples. These are coated on dimensionally stable polyimide films to ensure good physical performance. 61.5.2.3 Liquid Polyimide Resin (Photoimageable). Many new HDI applications require special capabilities and properties on the substrates that are not provided by commercial polyimide films. In these cases, circuit manufacturers initiate production by manufacturing polyimide substrates. Sometimes manufacturers have to start from the synthesis of polyimide resins. Several liquid polyimide resins have been developed as the base materials of high-density flexible circuits. Some of these liquid polyimide resins can be photoimaged, and have been used in high volume as the dielectric layer and coverlay in the wireless suspension of hard disk drives. These liquid polyimide resins could be the major dielectric materials of special high-density flexible circuits that demand extremely high density, down to 5 micron pitches with 10 micron via holes. The cost of these materials is higher than that of polyimide film. However, they have broader capability for meeting nonstandard requirements such as ultrathin substrates with microvia holes. The properties are very dependent on the manufacturer.
Polyester Film PET film (polyester film or polyethylene telephthalate) has been produced as a common film for general use, for the following reasons:
It can provide a low-cost solution. It has excellent mechanical performance at room temperature. It has low moisture absorption and its dimensional stability is excellent.
Unfortunately, PET film cannot keep its high performance at higher temperatures than 70 C, and it is available for only nonsoldering applications. (Several soldering technologies have been developed for PET-based flexible circuits, but they are very specialized.) Also, PET films are flammable and it is difficult to achieve UL flame class certification. Not many available PET films can satisfy the flammability requirements of UL-94. Typical properties are shown in Table 61.9.
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