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TABLE 61.9 Basic Properties of PET Films (Nonflammable Grade) Properties Test Items Tensile strength (kgf/mm2) Elongation Edge tear resistance (kgf/mm) Folding endurance Heat shrinkage CTE CHE Water absorption Volume resistivity Dielectric constant Dielectric loss Breakdown voltage Light transmission Chemical resistance Flammability
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Data courtesy of Mitsubishi Plastic.
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16 16 110% 100% 51 58 37,000 times 39,000 times 1.4% 0.2% 30 ppm 10 ppm 0.7% 4 exp 15 *cm 3.0 for 1 MHz 0.03 for 1 MHz 13.6 kV 46% Stable in weak acid and alkaline solution Stable in organic solvent UL-94-VTM-0
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Other Materials Used for Flexible Circuits Thin glass-epoxy sheets less than 200 mm thick can be flexible and can be used as a base substrate of low-cost flexible circuits. Their physical properties are basically the same as those of rigid circuit boards, and standard manufacturing processes and assembling processes for rigid circuit boards are available for these materials. Standard soldering processes are applicable. But glass-epoxy sheets do not have high flexibility, and they are not available for repeated flexing use. The basic properties of these materials are listed in Table 61.10.
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TABLE 61.10
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Properties of Thin Glass/Epoxy Substrate Risho industrial Matsushita electric (R-5766 series) 50, 70, 100, 130, 150, 180, 200 5.2 exp 14 4.7 0.015 0.18 1.39 260 C 120 s UL-94-V-0
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Items Tensile strength (kg/mm2) Elongation (%) Thickness (mm) Dimension change by heat (%) Dimension change by humidity (%) Surface resistance ( ) Volume resistivity ( *cm) Dielectric constant Dissipation factor (at 1 MHz) Water absorption (%) Breakdown voltage (kV/0.1 mm) Bond strength (kg/cm) Soldering resistance Flammability
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MD 24.5 3.2 120 0.05 0.03 1 exp 12 13 1 exp 12 13 1.0 3.6
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TD 17.0 1.6
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These materials are supplied as copper-clad laminates.
FLEXIBLE CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS
Fluorized carbon polymer films have been applied as a low-loss substrate material for flexible circuits. However, they do not have good dimensional stability or adhesion characteristics. High cost of the materials is the major reason that they cannot be standard in flexible circuits. In the last 20 years, several heat-resistant films, such as polypalabalic acid film and polysulfon film, have been developed as alternative substrate materials in flexible circuits instead of polyimide films. Unfortunately, there was no successful material from a business standpoint. LCP films and PEEK have been considered as the new materials of high-speed flexible circuits based on the low dielectric constant and loss tangents.
CONDUCTOR MATERIALS
As flexible circuits have various mechanical stresses, their conductors also have requirements for more flexibility and toughness than traditional ED copper foils of standard rigid circuit boards. An RA copper foil is the solution for high flexing endurance. It is necessary for dynamic flexing use. RA copper foils are more expensive than ED copper, especially at thicknesses of less than 18 micron. Therefore, high-ductility electrodeposited (HD-ED) copper foils have been developed that have greater flexibility than ED copper foils and a lower cost than RA copper foils. The differences between the copper foils are shown in Table 61.11.
TABLE 61.11 Basic Properties of Copper Conductors ED foil Manufacturer Grade Thickness (mm) Tensile strength (kg/mm2) Elongation (%) Surface roughness (mm) Cost Furukawa Electric STD foil 9, 12, 18, 35, 70 TD 34 TD 9 8 Low HD-ED foil Furukawa Electric HD foil 18, 35 TD 32 TD 23 10 Middle RA foil Japan Energy RA 12, 18, 35, 70 MD 21.5 TD 18.9 MD 12.8 TD 9.5 <3.5 High
(Data measured for 35 mm Thick Foils).
Due to the stringent requirements of fine-line etching, thinner copper foils have been developed with small surface profiles. RA copper foil 12 mm thick is a standard product. Low-profile 12 mm thick ED copper foils have also been commercialized for fine-line etching. A special treatment has been developed to ensure reliable bond strength with each adhesive material. In the next five years, these materials will be standard and utilized in large volume. RA copper foils thinner than 10 mm are available; however, processing and high material costs need to be addressed before large-volume production can commence. Copper foils thinner than 5 micron will be demanded for the semi-additive process to generate 10 micron wide traces or finer since the beginning of 2000s. Two types of technologies have been developed to have ultrathin copper foils. The first one is the etch-down process used to reduce the copper thickness from standard thick RA copper foils. Through this process, foils 3 5 micron thick can be obtained from 12 micron RA copper foils. The second is the use of ultrathin foils. ED copper foils 1 5 micron thick have been commercialized with the carrier copper foils. Ultrathin copper layers have been built on the smooth surface of other copper foils with standard thickness. The carrier copper foils are removed mechanically after the lamination with the base layers. Ultra thin copper foils have been applied to adhesiveless laminates through casting or lamination processes. In addition, sputtering and plating technologies have achieved conductors thinner than 5 mm with semi-additive processes. Among others, these processes can generate copper, nickel,
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