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and gold conductors. Also, they can produce fine traces at less than 10 mm pitch on flexible substrates. Plating baths and chemicals have been developed for these technologies. Special metal and alloy foils other than copper ones have been developed for specific applications. Aluminum conductors have been developed as the low-cost solution. They have been applied for volume production of the keyboards of calculators, antennas of wireless devices, and so on. But they could not be universal conductor materials of standard flexible circuits because of difficulty in soldering and the special chemistries needed for etching.The wireless suspension of disk drives has consumed a large volume of special stainless steel and copper alloy foils because of the special mechanical performance of the circuits. A high-resolution printer head has also utilized thin tungsten foils as the conductor of thermal printer head circuits. Nickelchromium alloy foils have been developed as the conductor materials of flexible heater circuits.
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The majority of flexible circuit manufacturers start the process with copper-clad materials. The properties of these materials depend on the capabilities of laminate manufacturers, even though the same base films and copper foils are used. To choose the right materials, manufacturers must carefully consider the basic properties of each laminate material.
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Adhesive-Based Laminates Historically, copper-clad laminates with acrylic or epoxy adhesives have been the major materials for flexible circuits. Each manufacturer has developed a special resin grade or special additives to ensure reliable flexibility and bond strength. Other adhesive materials such as phenol resin or silicon resin have been developed; however, they have not become standard adhesive materials in flexible circuits. The adhesive-based copper-clad laminates still represent more than 50 percent of the traditional flexible circuit market. The major properties of the materials are shown in Table 61.12. The manufacturing process is illustrated in Fig. 61.4. Mostly, these films are processed and supplied in roll form. The surfaces of polyester films and polyimide films undergo special processes such as sandblasting and plasma treatment to achieve a reliable bond strength. A specially blended adhesive resin is coated on the film and dried. Then a copper foil is laminated continuously under appropriate temperature and pressure.The surfaces of the copper foils receive a specific treatment according to the requirements of each laminate s manufacturer.
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TABLE 61.12 Basic Properties of Adhesive-Based Copper-Clad Laminates (Polyimide-Based) Items Manufacturer Grade Adhesive layer Peel strength (kgf/ccm) Dimensional stability MD (%) TD Flexing endurance MD (MIT, 2.0R) TD Insulation resistance ( ) Surface resistivity ( ) Volume resistivity (cm) Soldering resistance Flammability DuPont Pyralux LF Acrylic 1.4 0.08 0.07 N/A 1.0 exp 11 1.0 exp 13 1.0 exp 14 288 C 5 min No Properties Nikkan Nikaflex Epoxy 1.3 0.09 +0.03 3200 2950 2.5 exp 13 2.7 exp 14 2.0 exp 16 280 C 10 sec. UL-94-VTM-0 Shin-Etsu RAR Series Epoxy 1.8 0.09 0.04 2650 2850 1.0 exp 13 1.0 exp 14 1.0 exp 16 280 C 10 sec. UL-94-VTM-0
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FIGURE 61.4 Manufacturing process for adhesive type laminate, showing a polyimidebased film combined with an adhesive layer coat and laminated to copper foils.
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The same process is repeated for double-sided copper-clad laminates. (Some laminate manufacturers, however, have developed simplified manufacturing processes that can make the double-sided laminate in one single process to reduce manufacturing cost.) A well-conditioned aging process is important to achieving reliable bond strength and flexible characteristics of the laminates as the raw material of flexible circuits. Most of the adhesive resins have lower heat resistances than polyimide films, and are the bottleneck for high-temperature processing of flexible circuits (e.g., lead-free soldering and wirebonding). The flame-retardant properties of the laminates depend on the composition of the adhesive materials used by each manufacturer. Usually, a normal flame-retardant component in an adhesive resin has a negative effect on bonding. Several adhesive resins contain organic bromine molecules as the flame-retardant components, and will be eliminated for the ecological concerns. (For a discussion of this issue, see Chap. 6.) As soldering temperatures increase, heat-resistant adhesives or adhesiveless laminates systems are required.
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Adhesiveless-Based Laminates Several laminates without adhesive layers have been developed as the advanced materials for the next generation of flexible circuits. Lamination technology using epoxy resin or acrylic resin has been almost eliminated from HDI flexible circuits even though it uses new highperformance polyimide films as the substrates.Three types of adhesiveless copper-clad laminates have been developed (see Fig. 61.5):
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