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Each has different manufacturing processes and advantages as the major materials of HDI flexible circuits.Table 61.13 shows basic performances of typical adhesiveless laminate materials. Currently, there is no perfect solution that satisfies all requirements including cost. Suitable adhesiveless laminate materials should be chosen according to the specifications of the final flexible circuits and the convenience of manufacturing processes. 61.7.2.1 Cast-Type Adhesiveless Laminates. The cast-type adhesiveless laminates have a good cost/performance balance. They have a high bond strength between substrate layers and conductor foils. They can also use special conductors such as copper alloy, nickel, stainless
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FIGURE 61.5 (a) Manufacturing process of adhesiveless laminate using the cast process, (b) Manufacturing process of adhesiveless laminate using plating process, (c) Manufacturing process of adhesiveless laminate using lamination process
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TABLE 61.13 Comparison of Adhesiveless Copper-Clad Laminates Items Manufacturer Grade Choice of dielectric Base etchability Dielectric thickness (mm) Choice of conductors Conductor thickness (mm) Bond strength Double-sided Flexing endurance Dimensional change after etching Insulation resistance ( ) Volume resistivity ( cm) Flammability Roll clad Sputtering/plating process Gould Electronics GouldFlex Wide Fair 12.5 125 Small ~35 1.2 Available N/A MD: 0.05% TD: 0.03% >1 exp 10 >1 exp 14 UL-94-VTM-0 Standard Cast process Nippon Steel Chemical Espanex Small Difficult 12.5 50 Wide 12 70 1.5 Available 180 (MIT 0.8R) MD: 0.02% TD: 0.02% >1 exp 13 >1 exp 15 UL-94-VTM-0 Standard Lamination process DuPont Pyralux AP Small Difficult 12.5 150 Wide 12 70 1.4 Available N/A MD: 0.05% TD: 0.05% >1 exp 14 >1 exp 17 UL-94-VTM-0 Not available
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steel, etc. In addition, they have good flexibility to generate very thin substrate layers down to 12 micron thick. They can have a wide range of copper thicknesses because of the process. There is no difficulty in making 70 or 105 mm copper laminates. Because it has been around longer, the cast-type laminate has a relatively broader availability than other adhesiveless laminates. The process can produce both single-sided and double-sided laminates. The liquid polyimide resins are coated on a metal foil, directly controlling mechanical stress on the materials. Air-floating conveyors have been employed to reduce the stress. A thermal treatment process is the key to ensuring good physical performance of the laminates. Generally, two or more polyimide layers are coated on the metal foil to ensure both good dimensional stability and high bond strength. Usually, it is difficult to apply the chemical etching process to adhesive polyimide resins using standard alkaline solutions. Producing double-side laminates through casting requires a special process because the chemical imidation reaction generates a lot of moisture and results in delamination during the lamination process. One special process is to coat hot-melt-type polyimide on the top of the substrate layer, and another is to laminate another copper foil at high temperature and pressure. Physical performance varies depending on the combination of the polyimide resins and lamination conditions. Usually, higher temperatures than 300 C are required. 61.7.2.2 Sputtering/Plating-Type Adhesiveless Laminates. A two-step process is required to produce sputtering/plating-type adhesiveless laminates.The first step is a kind of sputtering process to produce seed layers on substrate films. The seed layers have two functions: to generate conductive layers on the nonconductive plastic films, and to increase the bonding strength between base films and conductor layers. Generally, the sputtered layers are thinner than 100 nm. Therefore, the second step builds the thick conductor layers by electrical plating. To produce double-sided laminates, the process is usually repeated twice. Sputtering/plating-type adhesiveless laminates can generate the thin conductors required for high-density circuits. Theoretically, these laminates provide stable conductor layers thinner than 10 mm at low cost. Technically, it is very possible to have 0.1 1.0 mm thick conductors. Although plating-type laminates provide more substrate material choices, their basic physical properties depend heavily on substrates. The majority of manufacturers introduced the sputtering process to generate a seed layer for good bond strength between the substrate and the conductor. Two or three steps of sputtering processes with nickel, chromium, and their alloys are employed to strike a good balance of chemical, physical, and electrical performance. Sometimes seed layers cannot be etched.
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