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Few choices are available for conductor materials. Thick conductors are not optimal because they requires a longer plating process. Micron-size pinholes in the conductor layer are the biggest issue with this material. Several manufacturers have introduced additional chemical processes to eliminate these pinholes. Generally, the bond strength of the laminate is lower than that of other types. 61.7.2.3 Lamination-Type Adhesiveless Laminates. Thermoplastic-type polyimide resins with high-temperature melting points have been developed to serve as the hot-melt adhesives between copper foils and dimensionally stable polyimide films. The adhesiveless flexible laminates are produced by a heat lamination of the copper foils and base polyimide films that have thin hot-melt polyimide layers coated on the surface of the core polyimide films. The polyimide films, with hot-melt polyimide layers, are supplied by the major polyimide film suppliers. Temperatures higher than 330 C are required to produce reliable laminates. Materials processed at temperatures lower than 200 C are available for several hot-melt polyimide resins; however, their physical properties are inferior to those of standard laminates. Producing double-sided laminates is not tremendously difficult. A conventional vacuum heat press with a higher processing temperature than 350 C is available to produce the laminate for small-volume production.A high-temperature roll laminator or belt laminator is used for high volume production. Lamination-type adhesiveless laminates have advantages in small-volume production. Special polyimide films that have hot-melt polyimide resin on the surface of dimensionally stable polyimide film are available commercially. If a manufacturer has high-temperature heat press equipment, it is not difficult to produce the laminates. A compact roll-type heat laminator was developed to produce the rolled laminates. Many choices of conductor materials are available for lamination-type adhesiveless laminates. Due to the special combination of conductor materials with stainless steel and copper alloy foils, this material has a variety of uses in multilayer rigid/flexible aerospace applications and in wireless suspension of disk drives. Generally, the adhesive polyimide is difficult to etch using standard alkaline etching solutions, so strong chemistry or a physical process such as plasma etching is required for the process. Figure 61.6 shows the thickness ranges available for the substrates and conductors for each type material. All of the laminates have expanded their capabilities, and several thicknesses are overlapped. Therefore, circuit manufacturers have more choices for specific thicknesses and can consider other performance variables, including cost.
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Adhesive Process Cast Process Plating Process Lamination Process Additive Process
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Copper Layer Base Layer
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Thickness (micron)
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FIGURE 61.6 Thickness range of the copper clad laminates.
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One of the major differences between flexible circuits and rigid circuit boards is coverlay. In addition to the solder mask used for assembly, coverlay is the mechanical protector for the fragile conductors on flexible circuits. Film-based coverlay and flexible solder mask have been standard materials for traditional flexible circuits. Several types of photoimageable coverlay materials have been developed to satisfy the fine-resolution requirements of HDI flexible circuits:
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Film coverlay Screen-printable coverlay (flexible soldermask) Photoimageable coverlay (dry-film type and liquid type) Several types of the materials are available for each coverlay type.
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Film Coverlay Usually the same films are chosen for the coverlay films as are used for the substrate layers. The films are coated with semicured acrylic or epoxy resin, which is used as an adhesive layer. The surfaces of the adhesive layers are covered with release films when the materials are delivered to circuit manufacturers. Semicured adhesive resins are unstable at room temperature, so film coverlay must be kept in refrigerators. The adhesive resins of the coverlay usually have only weeks of pot life even when they are kept in low-temperature environments, and exact conditioning is required for processing. The process of manufacturing with film coverlay is very complicated, which makes process automation difficult and increases the cost. The manual registration process and the use of unstable film material are major issues when considering film coverlay for HDI flexible circuits due to small hole capability and lower dimensional accuracy. Basic properties of the typical materials are shown in Table 61.14.
TABLE 61.14 Basic Properties of Film Coverlay (Polyimide Film Base) Manufacturer Grade Adhesive Lamination temperature Storage condition Bond strength (kg/cm) Surface resistivity ( ) Volume resistivity ( *cm) Soldering resistance Flammability DuPont Pyralux LF Acrylic 180 C Room temperature 1.3 1.0 exp 13 1.0 exp 14 288 C 5 min No Nikkan Industry CISV Epoxy 160 C Refrigerator 1.0 3.0 exp 14 1.2 exp 16 280 C 10 s UL-94-V-0
Screen-Printable Coverlay Ink (Flexible Solder Mask) A screen-printing process similar to that used for rigid circuit boards is available for flexible circuits as the low-cost coverlay process. However, specially conditioned liquid solder mask materials are required to produce appropriate flexibility for the circuits. Standard solder mask materials designed for the rigid boards have small cracks and de-laminations when bending.
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